Disclaimer. Don't rely on these old notes in lieu of reading the literature, but they can jog your memory. As a grad student long ago, my peers and I collaborated to write and exchange summaries of political science research. I posted them to a wiki-style website. "Wikisum" is now dead but archived here. I cannot vouch for these notes' accuracy, nor can I say who wrote them.
Stapel and Schwarz. 1998. The Republican who did not want to become president. PSPB 24 (7).
Colin Powell, who was immmensely popular among both Democrats and Republicans at the time, made two simultaneous decisions in 1996: Not to run in the Republican primary, and to join the Republican party. The public could view this one of two ways: Powell distanced himself from the party, or he attached himself to it. Depending on how they view it, their evaluations of the party might go up or down. These evaluations may also influence their evaluations of Bob Dole.
Implication: The media and spin could determine which way we think about Powell's decision, and therefore influence our evaluations of Republicans and of Dole.
An include/exclude model.
A survey design using six groups of college kids. Factor one: Powell's decision (three groups). Factor two: question order (two groups).
Research on similar subjects