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Utah Constitution navigation: Home (browse by year)Amendment index

This is a work in progress, so take it with a grain of salt. You might also be interested in my Guide to the Utah Legislature.

Historical development of the Utah Constitution

I have searched legislative journals, voter pamphlets, election results, and news reports to locate all amendments to the Utah Constitution. I include here all amendments proposed by a two-thirds legislative vote, including those rejected by voters. I believe I have accurately reconstructed the Utah Constitution's historical text as of January 1st of each relevant odd-numbered year, but see important caveats at the bottom of this page.


Words in the Utah Constitution

Percent of 1896 text remaining

Amendments per biennium

Words added/deleted per biennium

Compare?  Year  Amendments proposed by two-thirds legislative vote
1896
View 1896 text
This is the original Utah Constitution, drafted at the March-May 1895 Utah Constitutional Convention and ratified by voters November 5, 1895.

You can view scans of the original handwritten document. I use the transcription available here, except for Article II, Section 1, where the transcription contains an important error (substituting "east" for "west") that was not present in the original document.
1899 Rejected by voters: HJR23 1897 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: HJR7 1897 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR6 1897 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR7 1897 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR9 1897 Regular Session
1901
View 1901 text
Enacted: HJR3 1899 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR5 1899 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR7 1899 Regular Session
1907
View 1907 text
Enacted: HJR1 1905 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR3 1905 Regular Session
1909
View 1909 text
Enacted: SJR5 1907 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR2 1907 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR4 1907 Regular Session
1911
View 1911 text
Enacted: HJR14 1909 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR6 1909 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR2 1909 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR8 1909 Regular Session
1913 Rejected by voters: HJR2 1911 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: HJR3 1911 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR12 1911 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR15 1911 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR20 1911 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR7 1911 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR8 1911 Regular Session
1917 Rejected by voters: HJR6 1915 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR8 1915 Regular Session
1919
View 1919 text
Never brought before voters: HJR1 1917 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR14 1917 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR8 1917 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR9 1917 Regular Session
1921
View 1921 text
Enacted: SCR1 1919 Special Session
Rejected by voters: SCR6 1919 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR5 1919 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR6 1919 Regular Session
1923 Rejected by voters: SCR2 1921 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SCR4 1921 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR1 1921 Regular Session
1931
View 1931 text
Never brought before voters: HJR3 1929 Regular Session
Never brought before voters: HJR8 1929 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR10 1930 Special Session
Enacted: HJR9 1930 Special Session
Enacted: SJR2 1930 Special Section
Enacted: SJR3 1930 Special Session
Enacted: SJR5 1930 Special Session
Enacted: SJR6 1930 Special Session
1933
View 1933 text
Enacted: SJR5 1931 Regular Session
1935
View 1935 text
Enacted: HJR10 1933 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR5 1933 2nd Special Session
1937
View 1937 text
Enacted: SJR2 1935 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: HJR17 1935 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: HJR19 1935 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR3 1935 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR4 1935 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR5 1935 Regular Session
1939
View 1939 text
Enacted: HJR5 1937 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: HJR1 1937 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: HJR4 1937 Regular Session
1941
View 1941 text
Enacted: SJR4 1939 Regular Session
1943 Rejected by voters: HJR2 1941 Regular Session
1945
View 1945 text
Enacted: HJR1 1944 1st Special Session
Enacted: SJR2 1943 Regular Session
1947
View 1947 text
Enacted: HJR1 1946 1st Special Session
Enacted: HJR12 1945 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR2 1946 1st Special Session
Enacted: HJR3 1945 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR4 1945 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR4 1946 1st Special Session
Enacted: SJR5 1946 1st Special Session
Enacted: SJR6 1946 1st Special Session
1949
View 1949 text
Enacted: SJR5 1947 Regular Session
1951
View 1951 text
Enacted: HJR5 1949 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR6 1949 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR3 1949 Regular Session
1955 Rejected by voters: HJR5 1953 Regular Session
1959
View 1959 text
Enacted: HJR2 1957 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR7 1957 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: HJR14 1957 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR2 1957 Regular Session
1961
View 1961 text
Enacted: HJR2 1959 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR5 1959 Regular Session
1963
View 1963 text
Enacted: SJR6 1961 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR9 1961 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR3 1961 Regular Session
1965
View 1965 text
Enacted: SJR11 1963 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR5 1963 Regular Session
1967 Rejected by voters: HJR1 1966 2nd Special Session
Rejected by voters: SJR1 1965 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR1 1966 2nd Special Session
Rejected by voters: SJR14 1965 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR2 1966 2nd Special Session
Rejected by voters: SJR3 1966 2nd Special Session
Rejected by voters: SJR4 1966 2nd Special Session
1969
View 1969 text
Enacted: SJR1 1967 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR2 1967 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR5 1967 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR7 1967 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR8 1967 Regular Session
1971
View 1971 text
Enacted: SJR1 1969 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR3 1969 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR5 1969 Regular Session
1973
View 1973 text
Never brought before voters: HJR1 1971 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR5 1971 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR1 1971 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR11 1971 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR2 1971 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR1 1972 Budget Session and 1st Special Session
1975
View 1975 text
Enacted: SJR2 1974 2nd Special Session
Rejected by voters: HJR1 1974 Budget Session
Rejected by voters: SJR2 1974 Budget Session
Rejected by voters: SJR3 1974 Budget Session
1977
View 1977 text
Enacted: HJR3 1975 Regular Session
1981
View 1981 text
Never brought before voters: HJR23 1979 Regular Session
Never brought before voters: HJR25 1979 Regular Session
Never brought before voters: HJR31 1979 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR11 1979 Regular Session
Enacted: SJR7 1979 Regular Session
Rejected by voters: SJR3 1980 Budget Session
Rejected by voters: SJR6 1980 Budget Session
1983
View 1983 text
Enacted: HJR1 1982 Budget Session
Enacted: HJR27 1982 Budget Session
Enacted: Questionable 1982 amendment
Enacted: SJR3 1982 Budget Session
Enacted: SJR5 1982 Budget Session
1985
View 1985 text
Never brought before voters: SJR2 1983 Regular Session
Enacted: HJR1 1984 2nd Special Session
Enacted: HJR4 1984 2nd Special Session
Enacted: SJR1 1984 2nd Special Session
Enacted: SJR3 1984 2nd Special Session
Enacted: SJR8 1983 Regular Session
1987
View 1987 text
Enacted: HJR18 1986 General Session
Enacted: SJR1 1986 General Session
Rejected by voters: SJR4 1986 General Session
1989
View 1989 text
Enacted: SJR3 1988 General Session
Enacted: SJR4 1988 General Session
1991
View 1991 text
Enacted: HJR26 1989 General Assembly
Enacted: SJR9 1990 General Assembly
1993
View 1993 text
Enacted: SJR4 1992 General Session as changed by SJR1 1992 3rd Special Session
Enacted: SJR7 1992 General Session
Enacted: SJR8 1992 General Session
1995
View 1995 text
Enacted: HJR15 1994 General Session
Enacted: SJR6 1994 General Session
Rejected by voters: HJR17 1994 General Session
1997
View 1997 text
Never brought before voters: SJR5 1995 General Session
Enacted: HJR7 1996 General Session
Enacted: HJR8 1996 General Session
Enacted: SJR1 1996 General Session
Enacted: SJR17 1996 General Session
Enacted: SJR6 1996 General Session
Enacted: SJR7 1996 General Session
1999
View 1999 text
Never brought before voters: SJR1 1997 General Session
Enacted: HJR14 1997 General Session
Enacted: HJR4 1998 General Session
Enacted: HJR8 1997 General Session
Enacted: HJR8 1998 General Session
Enacted: SJR10 1998 General Session
Enacted: SJR13 1998 General Session
2001
View 2001 text
Enacted: SJR14 2000 General Session
Enacted: SJR5 1999 General Session as changed by SJR8 2000 General Session
2003
View 2003 text
Enacted: HJR11 2002 General Session
Enacted: HJR14 2002 General Session
Enacted: SJR10 2002 General Session
Enacted: SJR2 2002 General Session
Enacted: SJR4 2002 General Session
Rejected by voters: HJR30 2002 General Session
2005
View 2005 text
Enacted: HJR12 2004 General Session
Enacted: HJR25 2004 General Session
Enacted: SJR6 2004 General Session
2007
View 2007 text
Enacted: HJR1 2006 General Session
2009
View 2009 text
Enacted: HJR4 2007 General Session
Enacted: SJR12 2007 General Session
Enacted: SJR2 2007 General Session
Enacted: SJR5 2008 General Session
Rejected by voters: HJR12 2008 General Session
2011
View 2011 text
Enacted: HJR15 2010 General Session
Enacted: HJR2 2010 General Session
Enacted: HJR8 2009 General Session
Enacted: SJR8 2009 General Session
2013
View 2013 text
Enacted: HJR6 2012 General Session
Enacted: SJR8 2012 General Session
2015
View 2015 text
Enacted: SJR8 2014 General Session
Rejected by voters: HJR12 2014 General Session
Rejected by voters: SJR7 2014 General Session
2017
View 2017 text
Enacted: HJR8 2015 General Session
Enacted: SJR12 2016 General Session
Rejected by voters: SJR3 2016 General Session
2019
View 2019 text
Enacted: HJR18 2018 General Session
Enacted: SJR7 2017 General Session
Rejected by voters: SJR2 2018 General Session
Notes I have derived the most recent text of the Utah Constitution posted here by starting from the 1896 Constitution and incorporating each successful amendment.

When I compare my most version of the Constitution to the current official text of the Utah Constitution available from the Utah Legislature two unauthorized amendments appear. (1) Article XVI, section 8, of the official document erroneously omits the word "health" from this clause: "comfort, health, safety and general welfare." (2) Article XXIV, section 4, of the official document erroneously omits the language shown here in brackets: "All fines, penalties and forfeitures accruing [to the Territory of Utah, or] to the people of the United States in the Territory of Utah."

It appears that these errors crept into the published text in the 1980s. The Utah Constitution as published in 1979 by the State Archives and Records Service includes the missing language. A version published 8 years later by the Utah Constitutional Revision Commission omits it—despite including annotations indicating that Article XVI, section 8, was last amended in 1933, and Article XXIV, section 4, had never been amended. The Commission's two errors have apparently been carried forward into the current official text of the Constitution and ought to be corrected. (The version of the Constitution published by Lexis Nexis, like my version, includes the missing language.)

A more significant error crept into official copies of the Utah Constitution some time in the 1980s but was eliminated a few years later by an amendment ratified in 1992. See the commentary in this entry about a questionable 1982 amendment.

Three articles have had their titles change in official publications of the Utah Constitution. I have not found evidence that any official amendment authorized these (legally insignificant) changes. See commentary on these amendments: SJR7 1979 Regular Session (Article VII), SJR5 1999 General Session as changed by SJR8 2000 General Session (Article XI), SJR1 1969 Regular Session (Article XXIII).

Official publications of the Constitution have made many other minor stylistic changes over the years, such as replacing "A.D." with "AD." I have incorporated many of these changes into all versions shown here to minimize confusion when comparing two versions of the text.

Please inform me of any errors. I thank Justin Chang for research assistance.