Disclaimer. Don't rely on these old notes in lieu of reading the literature, but they can jog your memory. As a grad student long ago, my peers and I collaborated to write and exchange summaries of political science research. I posted them to a wiki-style website. "Wikisum" is now dead but archived here. I cannot vouch for these notes' accuracy, nor can I say who wrote them.
Ames. 1995. Electoral strategy under open-list proportional representation. AJPS.
Question: How does the electoral system in Brazil affect the political strategy and campaign behavior of individual legislators?
(Ames' own summary may be a much better review) Open-list PR in Brazil is "at the core of Brazil's institutional crisis." The hypothesized answer is that sitting deputies are able to offer budget amendments to benefit their constituencies. Prior to an election year, these budget amendments will be targeted to benefit specific municipalities based on several variables: the cost of erecting barriers to entry, the dominance of the deputy in the municipality, the special concentration of the deputy's statewide vote, the vulnerability of the municipality to invasion by outsiders, the weakness of the deputy in the last election, and the deputy's prior political career.
Members of Brazil's federal legislature are elected like US Senators: from state-wide, at-large districts (though they vary in size, unlike the Senate). Candidates win with the D'Hondt method: The party's vote share determines how many seats it gets, and these seats are allocated according to each candidate's vote share.
Candidates can pursue one of four electoral strategies, determined by two dimensions (pg 410-411).
"Logistic regression of amendments to the Brazilian national budget in 1989 and 1990 OLS regression of municipal-level electoral results for the Brazilian Chamber of Deputies in the 1990 election."
Results: "Deputies seek secure bailiwicks, search for vulnerable municipalities and strive to overcome their own electoral weakness by delivering pork. Candidates' tactics vary due to their career trajectory, and to variance in the characteristics of states.
This all leads to less voter control over deputies, more pork, and weaker party programs and discipline."
Research on similar subjects