Disclaimer. Don't rely on these old notes in lieu of reading the literature, but they can jog your memory. As a grad student long ago, my peers and I collaborated to write and exchange summaries of political science research. I posted them to a wiki-style website. "Wikisum" is now dead but archived here. I cannot vouch for these notes' accuracy, nor can I say who wrote them.
Alchian and Demsetz. 1972. Production, information costs, and economic organization. American Economic Review 62 (December): 777-795.
Coase argued that firms form to internalize the high transaction costs of constantly negotiating new contracts. By contrast, Alchian and Demsetz argue that information costs explain the rise of firms.
Firms will develop (Y) when two conditions obtain:
You will get a classical capitalist firm, which has these characteristics:
"The essence of the classical firm is identified here as a contractual structure with: 1) joint input production [team efforts]; 2) several input owners [e.g. each laborer owns himself]; 3) one party who is common to all the contracts of the joint inputs [the employer/owner]; 4) who has rights to renegotiate any input's contract independently of contracts with other input owners [e.g. can hire, fire, etc. to reward inputs that contribute more]; 5) who holds the residual claim [i.e. gets the "residual" income; see below]; and 6) who has the right to sell his central contractual residual status [i.e. can sell the company]."
By "residual" income, the authors refer to the amount of additional income that the team will earn by having somebody monitoring each input's marginal contribution. The employer has claim on this residual income [more or less].
In Fama's (1980) attempt to develop a theory of the firm that explains what happens when managers aren't owners (e.g. in a larger firm that is owned by stockholders), he reviews some earlier literature:
"The striking insight of Alchian and Dernsetz (1972) and Jensen and Meckling (1976) is in viewing the firm as a set of contracts among factors of production. In effect, the firm is viewed as a team whose members act from self-interest but realize that their destinies depend to some extent on the survival of the team in its competition with other teams." Fama criticizes Alchian and Demsetz, however, for failing to eliminate the entrepreneur from the picture; their theory still includes an employer who, like an entrepreneur, polices shirking because he collects the benefits of doing so.
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