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The 1945 Utah Constitution

This page presents the Utah Constitution as of the beginning of 1945, before any amendments that may have been proposed or ratified later in the year. Disclaimer: I have made a good faith effort to reconstruct the Utah Constitution at various points in time, but errors are always possible. Rely on Utah governmental sources for the current official text. Notes appearing [in brackets] are often included in government copies of the official text but are not formally part of the Constitution. Return to main Utah Constitution page.

Preamble.

Grateful to Almighty God for life and liberty, we, the people of Utah, in order to secure and perpetuate the principles of free government, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION.

Article I. Declaration of Rights.

Section 1. [Inherent and inalienable rights.]

All men have the inherent and inalienable right to enjoy and defend their lives and liberties; to acquire, possess and protect property; to worship according to the dictates of their consciences; to assemble peaceably, protest against wrongs, and petition for redress of grievances; to communicate freely their thoughts and opinions, being responsible for the abuse of that right.

Section 2. [All political power inherent in the people.]

All political power is inherent in the people; and all free governments are founded on their authority for their equal protection and benefit, and they have the right to alter or reform their government as the public welfare may require.

Section 3. [Utah inseparable from the Union.]

The State of Utah is an inseparable part of the Federal Union and the Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land.

Section 4. [Religious liberty.]

The rights of conscience shall never be infringed. The State shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; no religious test shall be required as a qualification for any office of public trust or for any vote at any election; nor shall any person be incompetent as a witness or juror on account of religious belief or the absence thereof. There shall be no union of Church and State, nor shall any church dominate the State or interfere with its functions. No public money or property shall be appropriated for or applied to any religious worship, exercise or instruction, or for the support of any ecclesiastical establishment. No property qualification shall be required of any person to vote, or hold office, except as provided in this Constitution.

Section 5. [Habeas corpus.]

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety requires it.

Section 6. [Right to bear arms.]

The people have the right to bear arms for their security and defense, but the Legislature may regulate the exercise of this right by law.

Section 7. [Due process of law.]

No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law.

Section 8. [Offenses bailable.]

All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses when the proof is evident or the presumption strong.

Section 9. [Excessive bail and fines. Cruel punishments.]

Excessive bail shall not be required; excessive fines shall not be imposed; nor shall cruel and unusual punishments be inflicted. Persons arrested or imprisoned shall not be treated with unnecessary rigor.

Section 10. [Trial by jury.]

In capital cases the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate. In courts of general jurisdiction, except in capital cases, a jury shall consist of eight jurors. In courts of inferior jurisdiction a jury shall consist of four jurors. In criminal cases the verdict shall be unanimous. In civil cases three-fourths of the jurors may find a verdict. A jury in civil cases shall be waived unless demanded.

Section 11. [Courts open -- Redress of injuries.]

All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done to him in his person, property or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, which shall be administered without denial or unnecessary delay; and no person shall be barred from prosecuting or defending before any tribunal in this State, by himself or counsel, any civil cause to which he is a party.

Section 12. [Rights of accused persons.]

In criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to appear and defend in person and by counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a copy thereof, to testify in his own behalf, to be confronted by the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his own behalf, to have a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offense is alleged to have been committed, and the right to appeal in all cases. In no instance shall any accused person, before final judgment, be compelled to advance money or fees to secure the rights herein guaranteed. The accused shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself; a wife shall not be compelled to testify against her husband, nor a husband against his wife, nor shall any person be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense.

Section 13. [Prosecution by information or indictment -- Grand Jury.]

Offenses heretofore required to be prosecuted by indictment, shall be prosecuted by information after examination and commitment by a magistrate, unless the examination be waived by the accused with the consent of the State, or by indictment, with or without such examination and commitment. The grand jury shall consist of seven persons, five of whom must concur to find an indictment; but no grand jury shall be drawn or summoned unless in the opinion of the judge of the district, public interest demands it.

Section 14. [Unreasonable searches forbidden -- Issuance of warrant.]

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or thing to be seized.

Section 15. [Freedom of speech and of the press. Libel.]

No law shall be passed to abridge or restrain the freedom of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions for libel the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact.

Section 16. [No imprisonment for debt. Exception.]

There shall be no imprisonment for debt except in cases of absconding debtors.

Section 17. [Elections to be free. Soldiers voting.]

All elections shall be free, and no power, civil or military, shall at any time interfere to prevent the free exercise of the right of suffrage. Soldiers, in time of war, may vote at their post of duty, in or out of the State, under regulations to be prescribed by law.

Section 18. [Attainder. Ex post facto laws. Impairing contracts.]

No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.

Section 19. [Treason defined. Proof.]

Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies or in giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act.

Section 20. [Military subordinate to the civil power.]

The military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power, and no soldier in time of peace, shall be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war except in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Section 21. [Slavery forbidden.]

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within this State.

Section 22. [Private property for public use.]

Private property shall not be taken or damaged for public use without just compensation.

Section 23. [Irrevocable franchises forbidden.]

No law shall be passed granting irrevocably any franchise, privilege or immunity.

Section 24. [Uniform operation of laws.]

All laws of a general nature shall have uniform operation.

Section 25. [Rights retained by people.]

This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people.

Section 26. [Provisions mandatory and prohibitory.]

The provisions of this Constitution are mandatory and prohibitory, unless by express words they are declared to be otherwise.

Section 27. [Fundamental rights.]

Frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is essential to the security of individual rights and the perpetuity of free government.

Article II. State Boundaries.

Section 1. [State boundaries.]

The boundaries of the State of Utah shall be as follows:

Beginning at a point formed by the intersection of the thirty-second degree of longitude west from Washington, with the thirty-seventh degree of north latitude; thence due west along said thirty-seventh degree of north latitude to the intersection of the same with the thirty-seventh degree of longitude west from Washington; thence due north along said thirty-seventh degree of west longitude to the intersection of the same with the forty-second degree of north latitude; thence due east along said forty-second degree of north latitude to the intersection of the same with the thirty-fourth degree of longitude west from Washington; thence due south along said thirty-fourth degree of west longitude to the intersection of the same with the forty-first degree of north latitude; thence due east along said forty-first degree of north latitude to the intersection of the same with the thirty-second degree of longitude west from Washington; thence due south along said thirty-second degree of west longitude to the place of beginning.

Article III. Ordinance.

The following ordinance shall be irrevocable without the consent of the United States and the people of this State:

[Religious toleration. Polygamy forbidden.]

First: -- Perfect toleration of religious sentiment is guaranteed. No inhabitant of this State shall ever be molested in person or property on account of his or her mode of religious worship; but polygamous or plural marriages are forever prohibited.

[Right to public domain disclaimed. Taxation of lands. Exemptions.]

Second: -- The people inhabiting this State do affirm and declare that they forever disclaim all right and title to the unappropriated public lands lying within the boundaries hereof, and to all lands lying within said limits owned or held by any Indian or Indian tribes, and that until the title thereto shall have been extinguished by the United States, the same shall be and remain subject to the disposition of the United States, and said Indian lands shall remain under the absolute jurisdiction and control of the Congress of the United States. The lands belonging to citizens of the United States, residing without this State shall never be taxed at a higher rate than the lands belonging to residents of this State; nor shall taxes be imposed by this State on lands or property herein, belonging to or which may hereafter be purchased by the United States or reserved for its use; but nothing in this ordinance shall preclude this state from taxing, as other lands are taxed, any lands owned or held by any Indian who has severed his tribal relations, and has obtained from the United States or from any person, by patent or other grant, a title thereto, save and except such lands as have been or may be granted to any Indian or Indians under any act of Congress, containing a provision exempting the lands thus granted from taxation, which last mentioned lands shall be exempt from taxation so long, and to such extent, as is or may be provided in the act of Congress granting the same.

[Territorial debts assumed.]

Third: -- All debts and liabilities of the Territory of Utah, incurred by authority of the Legislative Assembly thereof, are hereby assumed and shall be paid by this State.

[Free, nonsectarian schools.]

Fourth: -- The Legislature shall make laws for the establishment and maintenance of a system of public schools, which shall be open to all the children of the State and be free from sectarian control.

Article IV. Elections and Right of Suffrage.

Section 1. [Equal political rights.]

The rights of citizens of the State of Utah to vote and hold office shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex. Both male and female citizens of this State shall enjoy equally all civil, political and religious rights and privileges.

Section 2. [Qualifications to vote.]

Every citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, who shall have been a citizen for ninety days, and shall have resided in the State or Territory one year, in the county four months, and in the precinct sixty days next preceding any election, shall be entitled to vote at such election except as herein otherwise provided.

Section 3. [Electors: immunity from arrest.]

In all cases except those of treason, felony or breach of the peace, electors shall be privileged from arrest on the days of election, during their attendance at elections, and going to and returning therefrom.

Section 4. [Id. From militia duty.]

No elector shall be obliged to perform militia duty on the day of election except in time of war or public danger.

Section 5. [Electors to be citizens of U.S.]

No person shall be deemed a qualified elector of this State unless such person be a citizen of the United States.

Section 6. [Certain criminals, etc., ineligible to vote.]

No idiot, insane person or person convicted of treason, or crime against the elective franchise, unless restored to civil rights, shall be permitted to vote at any election, or be eligible to hold office in this State.

Section 7. [Property qualification forbidden, when.]

Except in elections levying a special tax or creating indebtedness, no property qualification shall be required for any person to vote or hold office.

Section 8. [Ballot to be secret.]

All elections shall be by secret ballot. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the use of any machine or mechanical contrivance for the purpose of receiving and registering the votes cast at any election: Provided, That secrecy in voting be preserved.

Section 9. [Elections, when held -- Terms, when begin.]

All general elections, except for municipal and school officers, shall be held on the Tuesday next following the first Monday in November of the year in which the election is held. Special elections may be held as provided by law. The terms of all officers elected at any general election, shall commence on the first Monday in January next following the date of their election. Municipal and School officers shall be elected at such time as may be provided by law.

Section 10. [Oath of office.]

All officers made elective or appointive by this Constitution or by the laws made in pursuance thereof, before entering upon the duties of their respective offices, shall take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support, obey and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of this State, and that I will discharge the duties of my office with fidelity."

Article V. Distribution of Powers.

Section 1. [Three departments of government.]

The powers of the government of the State of Utah shall be divided into three distinct departments, the Legislative, the Executive, and the Judicial; and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of these departments, shall exercise any functions appertaining to either of the others, except in the cases herein expressly directed or permitted.

Article VI. Legislative Department.

Section 1. [Power vested in Senate, House, and People.]

The legislative power of the State shall be vested: (1) In a Senate and House of Representatives, which shall be designated the Legislature of the State of Utah (2) In the people of the State of Utah as hereinafter stated: The legal voters or such fractional part thereof of the State of Utah, as may be provided by law, under such conditions and in such manner and within such time as may be provided by law, may initiate any desired legislation and cause the same to be submitted to a vote of the people for approval or rejection, or may be require any law passed by the Legislature (except those laws passed by a two-thirds vote of the members elected to each house of the Legislature) to be submitted to the voters of the State before such law shall take effect. The legal voters, or any such fractional part thereof, as may be provided by law, of any legal subdivision of the State, under such conditions and in such manner and within such time as may be provided by law, may initiate any desired legislation and cause the same to be submitted to a vote of the people of said legal subdivision for approval or rejection, or may require any law or ordinance passed by the lawmaking body of said legal subdivision to be submitted to the voters thereof before such law or ordinance shall take effect.

[As amended by HJR5 1899 Regular Session.]

Section 2. [Time of regular sessions.]

Regular Sessions of the Legislature shall be held bi-ennially at the seat of government; and, except the first session thereof shall begin on the second Monday in January next after the election of members of the House of Representatives.

Section 3. [Members, how and when chosen.]

The members of the House of Representatives, after the first election, shall be chosen by the qualified electors of the respective representative districts, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1896, and biennially thereafter. Their term of office shall be two years, from the first day of January next after their election.

Section 4. [Senators, how and when chosen.]

The senators shall be chosen by the qualified electors of the respective senatorial districts, at the same times and places as members of the House of Representatives, and their term of office shall be four years from the first day of January next after their election: Provided, That the senators elected in 1896 shall be divided by lot into two classes as nearly equal as may be; seats of senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of two years, and those of the second class at the expiration of four years; so that one-half, as nearly as possible, shall be chosen biennially thereafter. In case of increase in the number of senators, they shall be annexed by lot to one or the other of the two classes, so as to keep them nearly equal as practicable.

Section 5. [Who eligible as legislator.]

No person shall be eligible to the office of senator or representative, who is not a citizen of the United States, twenty-five years of age, a qualified voter in the district from which he is chosen, a resident for three years of the State, and for one year of the district from which he is elected.

Section 6. [Who ineligible as legislator.]

No person holding any public office of profit or trust under authority of the United States, or of this State, shall be a member of the Legislature: Provided That appointments in the State Militia, and the offices of notary public, justice of the peace, United States commissioner, and postmaster of the fourth class, shall not, within the meaning of this section, be considered offices of profit or trust.

Section 7. [Ineligibility of member to office created at term for which elected.]

No member of the Legislature, during the term for which he was elected, shall be appointed or elected to any civil office of profit under this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during the term for which he was elected.

Section 8. [Privilege from arrest.]

Members of the Legislature, in all cases except treason, felony or breach of the peace, shall be privileged from arrest during each session of the Legislature, for fifteen days next preceding each session, and in returning therefrom; and for words used in any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

Section 9. [Compensation of members.]

The members of the Legislature shall receive such compensation and mileage as the Legislature may provide, not exceeding $300.00 per year, and ten cents per mile for the distance necessarily traveled going to and returning from the place of meeting on the most usual route, and they shall receive no other pay or perquisite.

[As amended by HJR1 1944 1st Special Session.]

Section 10. [Each house to be judge of election, and qualification of its members -- Expulsion.]

Each house shall be the judge of the election and qualifications of its members, and may punish them for disorderly conduct, and with the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members elected, expel a member for cause.

Section 11. [Majority is quorum -- Attendance compelled.]

A majority of the members of each house shall constitute a quorum to transact business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each house may prescribe.

Section 12. [Rules -- Choosing officers and employees.]

Each house shall determine the rules of its proceedings and choose its own officers and employees.

Section 13. [Vacancies to be filled.]

Vacancies that may occur in either house of the legislature shall be filled in such manner as may be provided by law.

[As amended by SJR6 1930 Special Session.]

Section 14. [Journals -- Yeas and nays.]

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which, except in case of executive sessions, shall be published, and the yeas and nays on any question, at the request of five members of such house, shall be entered upon the journal.

Section 15. [Sessions to be public -- Adjournments.]

All sessions of the Legislature, except those of the Senate while sitting in executive session, shall be public; and neither house, without the consent of the other, shall adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which it may be holding session.

Section 16. [Duration of sessions.]

No regular session of the Legislature (except the first, which may sit ninety days) shall exceed sixty days, except in cases of impeachment. No special session shall exceed thirty days, and in such special session, or when a regular session of the Legislature trying cases of impeachment exceeds sixty days, the members shall receive for compensation only the usual per diemand mileage.

Section 17. [Impeachment by House.]

The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment, but in order to impeach, two-thirds of all the members elected must vote therefor.

Section 18. [Trial of impeachment by Senate.]

All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate, and senators, when sitting for that purpose, shall take oath or make affirmation to do justice according to the law and the evidence. When the Governor is on trial, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall preside. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators elected.

Section 19. [Officers liable for impeachment -- Judgment -- Prosecution by law.]

The Governor and other State and Judicial officers, except justices of the peace, shall be liable to impeachment for high crimes, misdemeanors, or malfeasance in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to removal from office and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or profit in the State. The party, whether convicted or acquitted, shall, nevertheless, be liable to prosecution, trial and punishment according to law.

Section 20. [Service of articles of impeachment.]

No person shall be tried on impeachment, unless he shall have been served with a copy of the articles thereof, at least ten days before the trial, and after such service he shall not exercise the duties of his office until he shall have been acquitted.

Section 21. [Removal of officers.]

All officers not liable to impeachment shall be removed for any of the offenses specified in this article, in such manner as may be provided by law.

Section 22. [Enacting clause. Passage and amendments of law.]

The enacting clause of every law shall be, "Be it enacted by the legislature of the state of Utah." Except such laws as may be passed by the vote of the electors as provided in subdivision 2, section 1 of this article, and such laws shall begin as follows: "Be it enacted by the people of the state of Utah." No bill or joint resolution shall be passed, except with the assent of the majority of all the members elected to each house of the Legislature, and after it has been read three times. The Vote upon the final passage of all bills shall be by yeas and nays; but the act as revised, or section as amended, shall be re-enacted and published at length.

[As amended by HJR5 1899 Regular Session.]

Section 23. [Bill to contain only one subject.]

Except general appropriation bills, and bills for the codification and general revision of laws, no bill shall be passed containing more than one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title.

Section 24. [Presiding officers to sign bills.]

The presiding officer of each house, in the presence of the house over which he presides, shall sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the Legislature, after their titles have been publicly read immediately before signing, and the fact of such signing shall be entered upon the journal.

Section 25. [When acts take effect.]

All acts shall be officially published, and no act shall take effect until so published; nor until sixty days after the adjournment of the session at which it passed, unless the Legislature by a vote of two-thirds of all the members elected to each house, shall otherwise direct.

Section 26. [Enumeration of private laws forbidden.]

The Legislature is prohibited from enacting any private or special laws in the following cases:

1. Granting divorce.

2. Changing the names of persons or places, or constituting one person the heir-at-law of another.

3. Locating or changing county seats.

4. Regulating the jurisdiction and duties of Justices of the Peace.

5. Punishing crimes and misdemeanors.

6. Regulating the practice of courts of justice.

7. Providing for a change of venue in civil or criminal actions.

8. Assessing and collecting taxes.

9. Regulating the interest on money.

10. Changing the law of descent or succession.

11. Regulating county and township affairs.

12. Incorporating cities, town or villages; changing or amending the charter of any city, town or village; laying out, opening, vacating or altering town plats, highways, streets, wards, alleys or public grounds.

13. Providing for sale or mortgage of real estate belonging to minors or others under disability.

14. Authorizing persons to keep ferries across streams within the State.

15. Remitting fines, penalties or forfeitures.

16. Granting to an individual, association or corporation any privilege, immunity or franchise.

17. Providing for the management of common schools.

18. Creating, increasing or decreasing fees, percentages or allowances of public officers during the term for which said officers are elected or appointed.

The Legislature may repeal any existing special law relating to the foregoing subdivisions.

In all cases where a general law can be applicable, no special law shall be enacted.

Nothing in this section shall be construed to deny or restrict the power of the legislature to establish and regulate the compensation of fees of county and township officers; to establish and regulate the rates of freight, passage, toll and charges of railroads, toll roads, ditch, flume and tunnel companies, incorporated under the laws of the State or doing business therein.

Section 27. [Legislature cannot release certain debts.]

The Legislature shall have no power to release or extinguish, in whole or in part, the indebtedness, liability or obligation of any corporation or person to the state, or to any municipal corporation therein.

Section 28. [Lotteries forbidden.]

The Legislature shall not authorize any game of chance, lottery or gift enterprise under any pretense or for any purpose.

Section 29. [Municipal powers not to be delegated.]

The legislature shall not delegate to any special commission, private corporation or association, any power to make, supervise or interfere with any municipal improvement, money, property or effects, whether held in trust or otherwise, to levy taxes, to select a capitol site, or to perform any municipal functions.

Section 30. [Extra compensation to officers and contractors forbidden.]

The Legislature shall have no power to grant, or authorize any county or municipal authority to grant, any extra compensation, fee or allowance to any public officer, agent, servant or contractor, after service has been rendered or a contract has been entered into and performed in whole or in part, nor pay or authorize the payment of any claim hereafter created against the State, or any county or municipality of the State, under any agreement or contract made without authority of law: Provided, That this section shall not apply to claims incurred by public officers in the execution of the laws of the State.

Section 31. [Lending public credit forbidden.]

The Legislature shall not authorize the State, or any county, city, town, township, district or other political subdivision of the State to lend its credit or subscribe to stock or bonds in aid of any railroad, telegraph or other private individual or corporate enterprise or undertaking.

Article VII. Executive.

Section 1. [Executive department. Terms, residence, and duties of officers.]

The Executive Department shall consist of Governor, Secretary of State, State Auditor, State Treasurer, Attorney General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction, each of whom shall hold his office for four years beginning on the first Monday of January next after his election, except that the terms of office of those elected at the first election shall begin when the State shall be admitted into the Union, and shall end on the first Monday in January, A.D. 1901. The officers of the Executive Department, during their terms of office, shall reside at the seat of government, where they shall keep the public records, books and papers. They shall perform such duties as are prescribed by this Constitution and as may be provided by law.

Section 2. [Election. Tie: legislature to elect.]

The officers provided for in section one of this article, shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State at the time and place of voting for members of the Legislature, and the persons respectively having the highest number of votes cast for the office voted for shall be elected; but if two or more shall have an equal and the highest number of votes for any one of said offices, the two houses of the Legislature, at its next regular session, shall elect forthwith by joint ballot one of such persons for said office.

Section 3. [Qualifications of governor, etc.]

No person shall be eligible to the office of Governor or Secretary of State unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years at the time of his election, nor to the office of Attorney-General unless he shall have attained the age of twenty-five years at the time of his election, and have been admitted to practice in the Supreme Court of the Territory or of the State of Utah, nor unless he shall be in good standing at the bar at the time of his election. No person shall be eligible to any of the offices provided for in section one of this article, unless at the time of his election he shall be a qualified elector, and shall have been a resident citizen of the State or Territory for five years next preceding his election. The State Auditor and State Treasurer shall be ineligible to election as their own successors.

Section 4. [Governor commander-in-chief.]

The Governor shall be Commander-in-Chief of the military forces of the State, except when they shall be called into the service of the United States. He shall have power to call out the militia to execute the laws, to suppress insurrection, or to repel invasion.

Section 5. [Duties of governor.]

The Governor shall see that the laws are faithfully executed; he shall transact all executive business with the officers of the government, civil and military, and may require information in writing from the officers of the Executive Department, and from the officers and managers of State Institutions upon any subject relating to the condition, management, and expenses of their respective offices and institutions, and at any time when the Legislative Assembly is not in session, may, if he deem it necessary, appoint a committee to investigate and report to him upon the condition of any executive office or State Institution. He shall communicate by message the condition of the State to the Legislature at every regular session, and recommend such measures as he may deem expedient.

Section 6. [Id. May convene extra session.]

On extraordinary occasions, the Governor may convene the Legislature by proclamation, in which shall be stated the purpose for which the Legislature is to be convened, and it shall transact no legislative business except that for which it was especially convened, or such other legislative business as the Governor may call to its attention while in session. The Legislature, however, may provide for the expenses of the session and other matters incidental thereto. The Governor may also by proclamation convene the Senate in extraordinary session for the transaction of executive business.

Section 7. [Id. May adjourn legislature, when.]

In case of a disagreement between the two houses of the Legislature at any special session, with respect to the time of adjournment, the Governor shall have power to adjourn the Legislature to such time as he may think proper: Provided, it be not beyond the time fixed for the convening of the next Legislature.

Section 8. [Bills presented to governor. Veto. Appropriation bills.]

Every bill passed by the Legislature, before it becomes a law, shall be presented to the Governor; if he approve, he shall sign it, and thereupon it shall become a law; but if he do not approve, he shall return it with his objections to the house in which it originated, which house shall enter the objections at large upon its journal and proceed to reconsider the bill. If, after such reconsideration, it again passes both houses by a yea and nay vote of two-thirds of the members elected to each house, it shall become a law, notwithstanding the Governor's objections. If any bill be not returned within five days after it shall have been presented to him, (Sunday, and the day on which he received it excepted,) the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Legislature by its final adjournment prevent such return, in which case it shall be filed with his objections in the office of the Secretary of State within ten days after such adjournment (Sundays excepted) or become a law. If any bill presented to the Governor contain several items of appropriations of money, he may object to one or more such items, while approving other portions of the bill; in such case he shall append to the bill at the time of signing it, a statement of the item or items which he declines to approve, together with his reasons therefor, and such item or items shall not take effect unless passed over the Governor's objection as in this section provided.

Section 9. [Governor may fill certain vacancies.]

When any State or district office shall become vacant, and no mode is provided by the Constitution and laws for filling such vacancy, the Governor shall have the power to fill the same by granting a commission, which shall expire at the next election, and upon qualification of the person elected to such office.

Section 10. [Governor's appointive power. Vacancies.]

The governor shall nominate, and by and with the consent of this senate, appoint all state and district officers whose offices are established by this constitution, or which may be created by law, and whose appointment or election is not otherwise provided for. If, during the recess of the senate, a vacancy occurs in any state or district office, the governor shall appoint some fit person to discharge the duties thereof until the next meeting of the senate, when he shall nominate some person to fill such office. If the office of secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, attorney-general or superintendent of public instruction be vacated by death, resignation or otherwise, it shall be the duty of the governor to fill the same appointment, and the appointee shall hold his office until his successor shall be elected and qualified, as may be by law provided.

[As amended by SJR2 1943 Regular Session.]

Section 11. [Vacancy in office of governor.]

In case of the death of the Governor, or his impeachment, removal from office, inability to discharge the duties of his office, resignation, or absence from the State, the powers and duties of said office shall devolve upon the Secretary of State, until the disability shall cease, or until the next general election, when the vacancy shall be filled by election. If, during a vacancy in the office of Governor, the Secretary of State resign, die or become incapable of performing the duties of the office, or be displaced, or be absent from the State, the President pro tempore of the senate shall act as Governor until the vacancy be filled or the disability cease. While performing the duties of the Governor as in this section provided, the Secretary of State, or the President pro tempore of the senate, as the case may be, except in cases of temporary disability, or absence from the State, shall be entitled to the salary and emoluments of the Governor.

Section 12. [Board of pardons. Respites and reprieves.]

Until otherwise provided by law, the Governor, Justices of the Supreme Court and Attorney-General shall constitute a Board of Pardons, a majority of whom, including the Governor, upon such conditions, and with such limitations and restrictions as they deem proper, may remit fines and forfeitures, commute punishments, and grant pardons after convictions, in all cases except treason and impeachments, subject to such regulations as may be provided by law, relative to the manner of applying for pardons; but no fine or forfeiture shall be remitted, and no commutation or pardon granted, except after a full hearing before the Board, in open session, after previous notice of the time and place of such hearing has been given. The proceedings and decisions of the Board, with the reasons therefor in each case, together with the dissent of any member who may disagree, shall be reduced to writing, and filed, with all papers used upon the hearing, in the office of the Secretary of State.

The Governor shall have power to grant respites or reprieves in all cases of convictions for offenses against the State, except treason or conviction on impeachment; but such respites or reprieves shall not extend beyond the next session of the Board of Pardons; and such Board, at such session, shall continue or determine such respite or reprieve, or they may commute the punishment, or pardon the offense as herein provided. In case of conviction for treason, the Governor shall have the power to suspend execution of the sentence, until the case shall be reported to the Legislature at its next regular session, when the Legislature shall either pardon, or commute the sentence, or direct its execution; he shall communicate to the Legislature at each regular session, each case of remission of fine or forfeiture, reprieve, commutation or pardon granted since the last previous report, stating the name of the convict, the crime for which he was convicted, the sentence and its date, the date of remission, commutation, pardon or reprieve, with the reasons for granting the same, and the objections, if any, of any member of the Board made thereto.

Section 13. [State prison commissioners. Board of examiners.]

Until otherwise provided by law, the Governor, Secretary of State and Attorney-General shall constitute a Board of State Prison Commissioners, which Board shall have such supervision of all matters connected with the State Prison as may be provided by law. They shall, also, constitute a Board of Examiners, with power to examine all claims against the State except salaries or compensation of officers fixed by law, and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by law; and no claim against the State, except for salaries and compensation of officers fixed by law, shall be passed upon by the Legislature without having been considered and acted upon by the said Board of Examiners.

Section 14. [Insane asylum commissioners.]

Until otherwise provided by law, the Governor, State Treasurer and State Auditor shall constitute a Board of Insane Asylum Commissioners. Said Board shall have such supervision of all matters connected with the State Insane Asylum as may be provided by law.

Section 15. [Reform school commissioners.]

Until otherwise provided by law, the Governor, Attorney-General and Superintendent of Public Instruction shall constitute a Board of Reform School Commissioners. Said Board shall have such supervision of all matters connected with the State Reform School as may be provided by law.

Section 16. [Duties of secretary of state.]

The Secretary of State shall keep a record of the official acts of the Legislature and Executive Department of the State, and, when required, shall lay the same and all matters relative thereto before either branch of the Legislature, and shall perform such other duties as may be provided by law.

Section 17. [Duties of auditor and treasurer.]

The Auditor shall be Auditor of Public Accounts, and the Treasurer shall be the custodian of public moneys, and each shall perform such other duties as may be provided by law.

Section 18. [Duties of attorney general.]

The Attorney-General shall be the legal adviser of the State Officers, and shall perform such other duties as may be provided by law.

Section 19. [Superintendent of public instruction.]

The Superintendent of Public Instruction shall perform such duties as may be provided by law.

Section 20. [Compensation of state officers.]

The Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Treasurer, Attorney-General, Superintendent of Public Instruction and such other State and district officers as may be provided for by law, shall receive for their services quarterly, a compensation as fixed by law, which shall not be diminished or increased so as to affect the salary of any officer during his term, or the term next ensuing after the adoption of this Constitution, unless a vacancy occur, in which case the successor of the former incumbent shall receive only such salary as may be provided by law at the time of his election or appointment. The compensation of the officers provided for by this article, until otherwise provided by law, is fixed as follows:

Governor, Two Thousand Dollars per annum.

Secretary of State, Two Thousand Dollars per annum.

State Auditor, Fifteen Hundred Dollars per annum.

State Treasurer, One Thousand Dollars per annum.

Attorney-General, Fifteen Hundred Dollars per annum.

Superintendent of Public Instruction, Fifteen Hundred Dollars per annum.

The compensation for said officers as prescribed in this section, and in all laws enacted pursuant to this Constitution, shall be in full for all services rendered by said officers, respectively, in any official capacity or employment during their respective terms of office. No such officer shall receive for the performance of any official duty any fee for his own use, but all fees fixed by law for the performance by either of them of any official duty, shall be collected in advance and deposited with the State Treasurer quarterly to the credit of the State. The Legislature may provide for the payment of actual and necessary expenses of said officers while traveling in the State in the performance of official duty.

Section 21. [Grants and commissions.]

All grants and commissions shall be in the name and by the authority of the State of Utah, sealed with the Great Seal of the State, signed by the Governor, and countersigned by the Secretary of State.

Section 22. [The great seal.]

There shall be a seal of the State, which shall be kept by the Secretary of State, and used by him officially. Said seal shall be called "The Great Seal of the State of Utah." The present seal of the Territory of Utah shall be the seal of the State until otherwise provided by law.

Section 23. [U.S. officials ineligible. Governor not eligible for senate.]

No person, while holding any office under the United States' government, shall hold any office under the State government of Utah, and the Governor shall not be eligible for election to the Senate of the United States during the term for which he shall have been elected Governor.

Article VIII. Judicial Department.

Section 1. [Judicial powers, how vested.]

The Judicial power of the State shall be vested in the Senate sitting as a court of impeachment, in a supreme court, in district courts, in justices of the peace, and such other courts inferior to the Supreme Court as may be established by law.

Section 2. [Supreme court, how constituted. Terms.]

The Supreme Court shall consist of five judges, which number may be increased or decreased by the legislature, but no alternation or increase shall have the effect of removing a judge from office. A majority of the judges constituting the court shall be necessary to form a quorum or render a decision. If a justice of the Supreme Court shall be disqualified from sitting in a cause before said court, the remaining judges shall call a district judge to sit with them on the hearing of such cause. Every judge of the Supreme Court shall be at least thirty years of age, an active member of the bar, in good standing, learned in the law, and a resident of the state of Utah for five years preceding his selection. The judge having the shortest term to serve, not holding his office by selection to fill a vacancy before expiration of a regular term, shall be a chief justice, and shall preside at all terms of the supreme court, and in the case of his absence, the judge, having in like manner, the next shortest term, shall preside in his stead.

[As amended by SJR2 1943 Regular Session.]

Section 3. [Id. Qualification of judges.]

Judges of the supreme court and district courts shall be selected for such terms and in such manner as shall be provided by law, provided however, that selection shall be based solely upon the consideration of fitness for office without regard to any partisan political considerations and free from influence of any person whomsoever, and provided further that the method of electing such judges in effect when this amendment is adopted shall be followed until changed by law.

[As amended by SJR2 1943 Regular Session.]

Section 4. [Id. Jurisdiction. Terms.]

The Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, certiorari, prohibition, quo warranto and habeas corpus. Each of the justices shall have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, to any part of the State, upon petition by or on behalf of any person held in actual custody, and may make such writs returnable before himself or the Supreme Court, or before any district court or judge thereof in the State. In other cases the Supreme Court Shall have appellate jurisdiction only, and power to issue writs necessary and proper for the exercise of that jurisdiction. The Supreme Court shall hold at least three terms every year, and shall sit at the capital of the State.

Section 5. [District courts, how constituted. Terms. Jurisdiction. Judge pro tempore.]

This state shall be divided into seven judicial districts, for each of which, at least one judge shall be selected as hereinbefore provided. Until otherwise provided by law, a district court at the county seat of each county shall be held at least four times a year. All civil and criminal business arising in any county, must be tried in such county, unless a change in venue be taken, in such cases as may be provided by law. Each judge of a district court shall be at least twenty-five years of age, an active member of the bar in good standing, learned in the law, a resident of the state of Utah three years next preceding his selection, and shall reside in the district for which he shall be selected. Any district judge may hold a district court in any county at the request of the judge of the district, and, upon a request of the governor it shall be his duty to do so. Any cause in the district court may be tried by a judge pro tempore, who must be a member of the bar, sworn to try the cause, and agreed upon by the parties, or their attorneys on record.

[As amended by SJR2 1943 Regular Session.]

Section 6. [Id. Legislature may change districts.]

The legislature may change the limits of any judicial district, or increase or decrease the number of districts, or judges thereof. No alteration or increase shall have the effect of removing a judge from office. In every additional district established, a judge or judges shall be selected as provided in section 3 of this article.

[As amended by SJR2 1943 Regular Session.]

Section 7. [Jurisdiction of district courts.]

The District Court shall have original jurisdiction in all matters civil and criminal, not excepted in this Constitution, and not prohibited by law; appellate jurisdiction from all inferior courts and tribunals, and a supervisory control of the same. The District Courts or any judge thereof, shall have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, injunction, quo warranto,certiorari, prohibition and other writs necessary to carry into effect their orders, judgments and decrees, and to give them a general control over inferior courts and tribunals within their respective jurisdictions.

Section 8. [Justices of the peace. Jurisdiction, etc.]

The Legislature shall determine the number of justices of the peace to be elected, and shall fix by law their powers, duties and compensation. The jurisdiction of justices of the peace shall be as now provided by law, but the Legislature may restrict the same.

Section 9. [Appeals from district court: record, etc. From justices' courts.]

From all final judgments of the district courts, there shall be a right of appeal to the Supreme Court. The appeal shall be upon the record made in the court below, and under such regulations as may be provided by law. In equity cases the appeal may be on questions of both law and fact; in cases at law the appeal shall be on questions of law alone. Appeals shall also lie from the final orders and decrees of the Court in the administration of decedent estates, and in cases of guardianship, as shall be provided by law. Appeals shall also lie from the final judgment of justices of the peace in civil and criminal cases to the District Courts on both questions of law and fact, with such limitations and restrictions as shall be provided by law; and the decision of the District Courts on such appeals shall be final, except in cases involving the validity or constitutionality of a statute.

Section 10. [County attorneys. Election, term, etc.]

A County Attorney shall be elected by the qualified voters of each county who shall hold his office for a term of two years. The powers and duties of County Attorneys, and such other attorneys for the State as the Legislature may provide, shall be prescribed by law. In all cases where the attorney for any county, or for the State, fails or refuses to attend and prosecute according to law, the court shall have power to appoint an attorney pro tempore.

Section 11. [Removal of judges from office.]

Judges may be removed from office by the concurrent vote of both houses of the Legislature, each voting separately; but two-thirds of the members to which each house may be entitled must concur in such vote. The vote shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the members voting for or against a judge, together with the cause or causes of removal, shall be entered on the journal of each house. The judge against whom the house may be about to proceed shall receive notice thereof, accompanied with a copy of the cause alleged for his removal, at least ten days before the day on which either house of the Legislature shall act thereon.

Section 12. [Judges' salaries to remain fixed.]

The judges of the supreme and district courts shall receive at stated times compensating for their services, which shall not be increased or diminished during the time for which they are selected.

[As amended by SJR2 1943 Regular Session.]

Section 13. [Disqualification of judges.]

Except by consent of all the parties, no judge of the supreme or inferior courts shall preside in the trial of any cause where either of the parties shall be connected with him by affinity or consanguinity within the degree of first cousin, or in which he may have been of counsel, or in the trial of which he may have presided in any inferior court.

Section 14. [Clerks of courts. Reporter.]

The Supreme Court shall appoint a clerk, and a reporter of its decisions, who shall hold their offices during the pleasure of the Court. Until otherwise provided, County Clerks shall be ex officio clerks of the District Courts in and for their respective counties, and shall perform other duties as may be provided by law.

Section 15. [Judges shall not appoint relatives to office.]

No person related to any judge of any court by affinity or consanguinity within the degree of first cousin, shall be appointed by such court or judge to, or employed by such court or judge in any office or duty in any court of which such judge may be a member.

Section 16. [Judicial districts, how constituted.]

Until otherwise provided by law, the Judicial Districts of the State shall be constituted as follows:

First District: -- The Counties of Cache, Box Elder and Rich.

Second District: -- The Counties of Weber, Morgan and Davis.

Third District: -- The Counties of Summit, Salt Lake and Tooele, in which there shall be elected three district judges.

Fourth District: -- The Counties of Utah, Wasatch and Uintah.

Fifth District: -- The Counties of Juab, Millard, Beaver, Iron and Washington.

Sixth District: -- The Counties of Sevier, Piute, Wayne, Garfield and Kane.

Seventh District: -- The Counties of San Pete, Carbon, Emery, Grand and San Juan

Section 17. [Courts of record.]

The Supreme Court and District Courts shall be courts of record, and each shall have a seal.

Section 18. [Style of process: "The State of Utah."]

The style of all process shall be, "The State of Utah," and all prosecutions shall be conducted in the name and by the authority of the same

Section 19. [But one form of civil action.]

There shall be but one form of civil action, and law and equity may be administered in the same action.

Section 20. [Salary of judges.]

Until otherwise provide by law, the salaries of supreme and district judges, shall be three thousand dollars per annum, and mileage, payable quarterly out of the State treasury.

Section 21. [Judges to be conservators of peace.]

Judges of the Supreme Court, District Courts, and justices of the peace, shall be conservators of the peace, and may hold preliminary examinations in cases of felony.

Section 22. [Judges to report defects in laws.]

District Judges may, at any time, report defects and omissions in the law to the Supreme Court, and the Supreme Court, on or before the first day of December of each year, shall report in writing to the Governor any seeming defect or omission in the law.

Section 23. [Publication of decisions.]

The Legislature may provide for the publication of decisions and opinions of the Supreme Court, but all decisions shall be free to publishers

Section 24. [Effect of extending judges' terms.]

The terms of office of Supreme and District Judges may be extended by law, but such extension shall not affect the term for which any judge was elected.

Section 25. [Decisions of Supreme Court to be in writing.]

When a judgment or decree is reversed, modified or affirmed by the Supreme Court, the reasons therefor shall be stated concisely in writing, signed by the judges concurring, filed in the office of the Clerk of the Supreme Court, and preserved with a record of the case. Any judge dissenting therefrom, may give the reasons of his dissent in writing over his signature.

Section 26. [Id. Court to prepare syllabus.]

It shall be the duty of the court to prepare a syllabus of all the points adjudicated in each case, which shall be concurred in by a majority of the judges thereof, and it shall be prefixed to the published reports of the case.

Section 27. [Judge forfeits office by absence.]

Any judicial officer who shall absent himself from the State or district for more than ninety consecutive days, shall be deemed to have forfeited his office: Provided, That in case of extreme necessity, the Governor may extend the leave of absence to such time as the necessity therefor shall exist.

Article IX. Congressional and Legislative Apportionment.

Section 1. [Election of congressman.]

One Representative in the Congress of the United States shall be elected from the State at large on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, A.D. 1895, and thereafter at such times and places, and in such manner as may be prescribed by law. When a new apportionment shall be made by Congress, the Legislature shall divide the State into congressional districts accordingly.

Section 2. [Decennial census to be taken.]

The Legislature shall provide by law for an enumeration of the inhabitants of the State, A.D. 1905, and every tenth year thereafter, and at the session next following such enumeration, and also at the session next following an enumeration made by the authority of the United States, shall revise and adjust the apportionment for senators and representatives on the basis of such enumeration according to ratios to be fixed by law

Section 3. [Number of members of legislature.]

The Senate shall consist of eighteen members, and the House of Representatives of forty-five members. The Legislature may increase the number of senators and representatives, but the senators shall never exceed thirty in number, and the number of representatives shall never be less than twice nor greater than three times the number of senators.

Section 4. [Senatorial districts, how formed.]

When more than one county shall constitute a senatorial district, such counties shall be contiguous, and no county shall be divided in the formation of such districts unless such county contains sufficient population within itself to form two or more districts, nor shall a part of any county be united with any other county in forming any district.

REPRESENTATIVE DISTRICTS

Until otherwise provided by law, representatives shall be apportioned among the several counties of the State as follows: Provided, That in any future apportionment made by the Legislature, each county shall be entitled to at least one representative.

The County of Box Elder shall constitute the First Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Cache shall constitute the Second Representative District, and be entitled to three representatives.

The County of Rich shall constitute the Third Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Weber shall constitute the Fourth Representative District, and be entitled to four representatives.

The County of Morgan shall constitute the Fifth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Davis shall constitute the Sixth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Tooele shall constitute the Seventh Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Salt Lake shall constitute the Eighth Representative District, and be entitled to ten representatives.

The County of Summit shall constitute the Ninth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Wasatch shall constitute the Tenth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Utah shall constitute the Eleventh Representative District, and be entitled to four representatives.

The County of Uintah shall constitute the Twelfth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Juab shall constitute the Thirteenth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of San Pete shall constitute the Fourteenth Representative District, and be entitled to two representatives.

The County of Carbon shall constitute the Fifteenth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Emery shall constitute the Sixteenth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Grand shall constitute the Seventeenth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Sevier shall constitute the Eighteenth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Millard shall constitute the Nineteenth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Beaver shall constitute the Twentieth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Piute shall constitute the Twenty-first Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Wayne shall constitute the Twenty-second Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Garfield shall constitute the Twenty-third Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Iron shall constitute the Twenty-fourth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Washington shall constitute the Twenty-fifth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of Kane shall constitute the Twenty-sixth Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

The County of San Juan shall constitute the Twenty-seventh Representative District, and be entitled to one representative.

SENATORIAL DISTRICTS

Until otherwise provided by law, Senatorial Districts shall be constituted and numbered as follows:

The Counties of Box Elder and Tooele shall constitute the First District, and be entitled to one Senator.

The County of Cache shall constitute the Second District, and be entitled to one Senator.

The Counties of Rich, Morgan, and Davis shall constitute the Third District, and be entitled to one Senator.

The County of Weber shall constitute the Fourth District, and be entitled to two Senators.

The Counties of Summit and Wasatch shall constitute the Fifth District, and be entitled to one Senator.

The County of Salt Lake shall constitute the Sixth District, and be entitled to five Senators.

The County of Utah shall constitute the Seventh District, and be entitled to two Senators.

The Counties of Juab and Millard shall constitute the Eighth District, and be entitled to one Senator.

The County of San Pete shall constitute the Ninth District, and be entitled to one Senator.

The Counties of Sevier, Wayne, Piute, and Garfield shall constitute the Tenth District, and be entitled to one Senator.

The Counties of Beaver, Iron, Washington, and Kane shall constitute the Eleventh District, and be entitled to one Senator.

The Counties of Emery, Carbon, Uintah, Grand, and San Juan shall constitute the Twelfth District, and be entitled to one Senator.

Article X. Education.

Section 1. [Free non-sectarian schools.]

The Legislature shall provide for the establishment and maintenance of a uniform system of public schools, which shall be open to all children of the State, and be free from sectarian control.

Section 2. [Public school system. Maintenance.]

The public school system shall include kindergarten schools; common schools, consisting of primary and grammar grades; high schools, and agricultural college; a university; and such other schools as the Legislature may establish. The common schools shall be free. The other departments of the system shall be supported as provided by law.

[As amended by HJR3 1905 Regular Session, HJR14 1909 Regular Session.]

Section 3. [State school fund. Interest distributed.]

The proceeds of the sales of all lands that have been or may be hereafter be granted by the United States to this state, for the support of the common schools, and fiver per centum of the net proceeds of the sales of United States public lands lying within the state and sold by the United States subsequent to the admission of this state into the Union, shall be and remain a permanent fund, to be called the State School Fund, the interest of which only, shall be expended for the support of common schools. The interest on the State School Fund, the proceeds on all property that may accrue to the state by escheat or forfeiture, all unclaimed shares and dividends of any corporation incorporated under the laws of this state, the proceeds of the sale of timber, and the proceeds, and the proceeds of the sale or other disposition of minerals or other property from school and state lands, other than those granted for specific purposes, shall, with other such revenues as the Legislature may from time to time allot thereto, constitute a fund to be known as the Uniform State Fund, which Uniform State Fund shall be maintained and used for the support of the common and public schools of the state and apportioned in such manner as the Legislature shall provide. The provisions of section 7, Article XIII of this Constitution shall be construed as a limitation on the rate of taxation on tangible property for district school purposes and not on the amount of funds available therefor and, further, no moneys allocated to the Uniform School Fund shall be considered in fixing the rates of taxation specified in section 7 of Article XIII.

[As amended by HJR14 1909 Regular Session, HJR10 1930 Special Session, HJR5 1937 Regular Session.]

Section 4. [University and agricultural college located. Rights, etc.]

The location and establishment by existing laws of the University of Utah, and the Agricultural College are hereby confirmed, and all the rights, immunities, franchises and endowments heretofore granted or conferred, are hereby perpetuated unto said University and Agricultural College respectively.

Section 5. [Proceeds of land grants to constitute permanent funds.]

The proceeds of the sale of lands reserved by an Act of Congress, approved February 21st, 1855, for the establishment of the University of Utah, and of all the lands granted by an Act of Congress, approved July 16th, 1894, shall constitute permanent funds, to be safely invested and held by the State; and the income thereof shall be used exclusively for the support and maintenance of the different institutions and colleges, respectively, in accordance with the requirements and conditions of said Acts of Congress.

Section 6. [Separate control of city schools.]

In cities of the first and second class the public school system shall be controlled by the Board of Education of such cities, separate and apart from the counties in which said cities are located.

[As amended by HJR3 1899 Regular Session.]

Section 7. [School funds guaranteed by state.]

All public School Funds shall be guaranteed by the State against loss or diversion.

Section 8. [State board of education.]

The general control and supervision of the Public School System shall be vested in a State Board of Education, consisting of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and such other persons as the Legislature may provide.

Section 9. [Textbooks.]

Neither the Legislature nor the State Board of Education shall have power to prescribe textbooks to be used in the common schools.

Section 10. [Institutions for deaf, dumb and blind. Property. Fund.]

Institutions for the Deaf and Dumb, and for the Blind, are hereby established. All property belonging to the School for the Deaf and Dumb, heretofore connected with the University of Utah, shall be transferred to said Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. All the proceeds of the lands granted by the United States, for the support of a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, and for an Institution for the Blind, shall be a perpetual fund for the maintenance of said Institutions. It shall be a trust fund, the principal of which shall remain inviolate, guaranteed by the state against loss or diversion.

Section 11. [Metric system.]

The Metric System shall be taught in the public schools of the State.

Section 12. [No religious or partisan tests in schools.]

Neither religious nor partisan test or qualification shall be required of any person, as a condition of admission, as teacher or student, into any public educational institution of the State.

Section 13. [Public aid to church schools forbidden.]

Neither the Legislature nor any county, city, town, school district or other public corporation, shall make any appropriation to aid in the support of any school, seminary, academy, college, university or other institution, controlled in whole, or in part, by any church, sect or denomination whatever.

Article XI. Counties, Cities, and Towns.

Section 1. [Existing counties, precincts, etc., recognized.]

The several counties of the Territory of Utah, existing at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, are hereby recognized as legal subdivisions of this State, and the precincts, and school districts, now existing in said counties, as legal subdivisions thereof, and they shall so continue until changed by law in pursuance of this article.

Section 2. [Removal of county seats.]

No County Seat shall be removed unless two-thirds of the qualified electors of the county, voting on the proposition at a general election, shall vote in favor of such removal, and two-thirds of the votes cast on the proposition shall be required to relocate a county seat. A proposition of removal shall not be submitted in the same county more than once in four years.

Section 3. [Changing county lines.]

No territory shall be stricken from any county unless a majority of the voters living in such territory, as well as of the county to which it is to be annexed, shall vote therefor, and then only under such conditions as may be prescribed by general law.

Section 4. [Uniform county government.]

The Legislature shall establish a system of County government, which shall be uniform throughout the State, and by general laws shall provide for precinct and township organizations.

Section 5. [Cities and towns not to be created by special laws. Legislature to provide for the incorporation, organization, dissolution, and classification of cities and towns. Charter cities.]

Corporations for municipal purposes shall not be created by special laws. The legislature by general laws shall provide for the incorporation, organization and classification of cities and towns in proportion to population, which laws may be altered, amended or repealed.

Any incorporated city or town may frame and adopt a charter for its own government in the following manner:

The legislative authority of the city may, by two-thirds vote of its members, and upon petition of qualified electors to the number of fifteen per cent of all votes cast at the next preceding election for the office of the mayor, shall forthwith provide by ordinance for the submission to the electors of the question: "Shall a commission be chosen to frame a charter?" The ordinance shall require that the question be submitted to the electors at the next regular municipal election. The ballot containing such question shall also contain the names of candidates for members of the proposed commission, but without party designation. Such candidates shall be nominated in the same manner as required by law for nomination of city officers. If a majority of the electors voting on the question of choosing a commission shall vote in the affirmative, then the fifteen candidates receiving a majority of the votes cast at such election, shall constitute the charter commission, and shall proceed to frame a charter.

Any charter so framed shall be submitted to the qualified electors of the city at an election to be held at a time to be determined by the charter commission, which shall be not less than sixty days subsequent to its completion and distribution among the electors and not more than one year from such date. Alternative provisions may also be submitted to be voted upon separately. The commission shall make provisions for the distribution of copies of the proposed charter and of any alternative provisions to the qualified electors of the city, not less than sixty days before the election at which it is voted upon. Such proposed charter and such alternative provisions as are approved by a majority of the electors voting thereon, shall become an organic law of such city at such time as may be fixed therein, and shall supersede any existing charter and all laws affecting the organization and government of such city which are now in conflict therewith. Within thirty days after its approval a copy of such charter as adopted, certified by the mayor and city recorder and authenticated by the seal of such city, shall be made in duplicate and deposited, one in the office of the secretary of State and the other in the office of the city recorder, and thereafter all courts shall take judicial notice of such charter.

Amendments to any such charter may be framed and submitted by a charter commission in the same manner as provided for making of charters, or may be proposed by the legislative authority of the city upon a two-thirds vote thereof, or by petition of qualified electors to a number equal to fifteen per cent of the total vote cast for mayor on the next preceding election, and any such amendment may be submitted at the next regular municipal election, and having been approved by the majority of the electors voting thereon, shall become part of the charter at the time fixed in such amendment and shall be certified and filed as provided in case of charters.

Each city forming its charter under this section shall have, and is hereby granted, the authority to exercise all powers relating to municipal affairs, and to adopt and enforce within its limits, local police, sanitary and similar regulations not in conflict with the general law, and no enumeration of powers in this constitution or any law shall be deemed to limit or restrict the general grant of authority hereby conferred; but this grant of authority shall not include the power to regulate public utilities, not municipally owned, if any such regulation of public utilities is provided for by general law, nor be deemed to limit or restrict the power of the legislature in matters relating to State affairs, to enact general laws applicable alike to all cities of the State.

The power to be conferred upon the cities by this section shall include the following:

(a) To levy, assess and collect taxes and borrow money, within the limits prescribed by general law, and to levy and collect special assessments for benefits conferred.

(b) To furnish all local public services; to purchase, hire, construct, own, maintain and operate, or lease, public utilities local in extent and use; to acquire by condemnation, or otherwise, within or without the corporate limits, property necessary for any such purposes, subject to restrictions imposed by general law for the protection of other communities; and to grant local public utility franchises and within its powers regulate the exercise thereof.

(c) To make local public improvement and to acquire by condemnation, or otherwise, property within its corporate limits necessary for such improvements; and also to acquire an excess over than [that] needed for any such improvement and to sell or lease such excess property with restrictions, in order to protect and preserve the improvement.

(d) To issue and sell bonds on the security of any such excess property, or of any public utility owned by the city, or of the revenues thereof, or both, including, in the case of public utility, a franchise stating the terms upon which, in case of foreclosure, the purchaser may operate such utility.

[As amended by SJR5 1931 Regular Session.]

Section 6. [Municipalities forbidden to sell waterworks or rights.]

No municipal corporation, shall directly or indirectly, lease, sell, alien or dispose of any waterworks, water rights, or sources of water supply now, or hereafter to be owned or controlled by it; but all such waterworks, water rights and sources of water supply now owned or hereafter to be acquired by any municipal corporation, shall be preserved, maintained and operated by it for supplying its inhabitants with water at reasonable charges: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be construed to prevent any such municipal corporation from exchanging water-rights, or sources of water supply, for other water-rights or sources of water supply of equal value, and to be devoted in like manner to the public supply of its inhabitants.

Article XII. Corporations.

Section 1. [Corporations. Formation. Control.]

Corporations may be formed under general laws, but shall not be created by special acts. All laws relating to corporations may be altered, amended or repealed by the Legislature, and all corporations doing business in this State, may, as to such business, be regulated, limited or restrained by law.

Section 2. [Existing corporations to accept Constitution.]

All existing charters, franchises, special or exclusive privileges, under which an actual and bona fide organization shall not have taken place, and business been commenced in good faith, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall thereafter have no validity; and no corporation in existence at the time of the adoption of this Constitution shall have the benefit of future legislation without first filing in the office of the Secretary of State, an acceptance of the provisions of this Constitution

Section 3. [Legislature not to extend or validate franchises.]

The Legislature shall not extend any franchise or charter, nor remit the forfeiture of any franchise or charter of any corporation now existing, or which shall hereafter exist under the laws of this State.

Section 4. ["Corporation" defined. Suits.]

The term "Corporation," as used in this article, shall be construed to include all associations and joint-stock companies having any powers or privileges of corporations not possessed by individuals or partnerships, and all corporations shall have the right to sue, and shall be subject to be sued, in all courts, in like cases as natural persons

Section 5. [Corporate stock. Issuance, increase, etc.]

Corporations shall not issue stock, except to bona fide subscribers thereof or their assignee, nor shall any corporation issue any bond, or other obligation, for the payment of money, except for money or property received, or labor done. The stock of corporations shall not be increased, except in pursuance of general law, nor shall any law authorize the increase of stock without the consent of the person or persons holding the larger amount in value of the stock, or without due notice of the proposed increase having previously been given in such manner as may be prescribed by law. All fictitious increase of stock or indebtedness shall be void.

Section 6. [Privileges of foreign corporations.]

No corporations organized outside of this State, shall be allowed to transact business within the State on conditions more favorable than those prescribed by law to similar corporations organized under the laws of this State

Section 7. [Limitation on alienation of franchise.]

No corporation shall lease or alienate any franchise, so as to relieve the franchise or property held thereunder from the liabilities of the lessor, or grantor, lessee or grantee, contracted or incurred in operation, use or enjoyment of such franchise or any of its privileges.

Section 8. [Consent of local authorities necessary to use of streets.]

No law shall be passed granting the right to construct and operate a street railroad, telegraph, telephone or electric light plant within any city or incorporated town, without the consent of the local authorities who have control of the street or highway proposed to be occupied for such purposes.

Section 9. [Place of business, process agent, etc.]

No corporation shall do business in this State, without having one or more places of business, with an authorized agent or agents, upon whom process may be served; nor without first filing a certified copy of its articles of incorporation with the Secretary of State.

Section 10. [Corporations limited to authorized objects.]

No corporation shall engage in any business other than that expressly authorized in its charter, or articles of incorporation

Section 11 [Franchises may be taken for public use.] The exercise of the right of eminent domain shall never be so abridged or construed, as to prevent the Legislature from taking the property and franchises of incorporated companies, and subjecting them to public use the same as the property of individuals.

Section 12. [Common carriers.]

All railroad and other transportation companies are declared to be common carriers, and subject to legislative control; and such companies shall receive and transport each other's passengers and freight, without discrimination or unnecessary delay.

Section 13. [Competing railroads not to consolidate.]

No railroad corporation shall consolidate its stock, property or franchises with any other railroad corporation owning a competing line

Section 14. [Rolling stock considered personal property.]

The rolling stock, and other movable property, belonging to any railroad company or corporation in this State, shall be considered personal property, and shall be liable to taxation and to execution and sale, in the same manner as the personal property of individuals, and such property shall not be exempted from execution and sale.

Section 15. [Legislature to prescribe maximum rates. Discriminations.]

The Legislature shall pass laws establishing reasonable maximum rates of charges for the transportation of passengers and freight, for correcting abuses, and preventing discrimination and extortion in rates of freight and passenger tariffs by the different railroads, and other common carriers in the State, and shall enforce such laws by adequate penalties.

Section 16. [Armed bodies not enter state, when.]

No corporation or association shall bring any armed person or bodies of men into this State for the preservation of the peace, or the suppression of domestic trouble without authority of law.

Section 17. [Employee of corporation ineligible to municipal office, when.]

No officer, employee, attorney or agent of any corporation, company or association doing business under, or by virtue of any municipal charter or franchise, shall be eligible to or permitted to hold any municipal office, in the municipality granting such charter or franchise.

Section 18. [Liability of stockholders of banks.]

The legislature may provide by law that the stockholders in every corporation and joint stock association organized for banking purposes, or the holders of any one or more of the classes of stock issued by any such corporation in addition to the amount of capital stock subscribed and fully paid by them shall be individually responsible for an additional amount equal to not exceeding the amount of their stock in such corporation, or the amount of their stock of any particular class in such corporation, for all its debts and liabilities of every kind.

[As amended by SJR4 1939 Regular Session.]

Section 19. [Blacklisting forbidden.]

Every person in this State shall be free to obtain employment whenever possible, and any person, corporation, or agent, servant or employee thereof, maliciously interfering or hindering in any way, any person from obtaining, or enjoying employment already obtained, from any other corporation or person, shall be deemed guilty of a crime. The Legislature shall provide by law for the enforcement of this section.

Section 20. [Trusts and combinations prohibited.]

Any combination by individuals, corporations, or associations, having for its object or effect the controlling of the price of any products of the soil, or of any article of manufacture or commerce, or the cost of exchange or transportation, is prohibited, and hereby declared unlawful, and against public policy. The Legislature shall pass laws for the enforcement of this section by adequate penalties, and in case of incorporated companies, if necessary for that purpose, it may declare a forfeiture of their franchise.

Article XIII. Revenue and Taxation.

Section 1. [Fiscal year.]

The fiscal year shall begin on the first day of January, unless changed by the Legislature.

Section 2. [What property taxable. Definitions. Revenue.]

All tangible property in the State, not exempt under the laws of the United States, or under this constitution, shall be taxed in proportion to its value, to be ascertained as provided by law. The property of the United States, of the State, counties, cities, towns, school districts, municipal corporations and public libraries, lots with the buildings thereon used exclusively for either religious worship or charitable purposes, and places of burial not held or used for private or corporate benefit, shall be exempt from taxation. Water rights, ditches, canals, reservoirs, power plants, pumping plants, transmission lines, pipes and flumes owned and used by individuals or corporations for irrigating lands within the state owned by such individuals or corporations, or the individual members thereof, shall not be separately taxed as long as they shall be owned and used exclusively for such purposes. Power plants, power transmission lines and other property used for generating and delivering electrical power, a portion of which is used for furnishing power for pumping water for irrigation purposes on lands in the State of Utah, may be exempted from taxation to the extent that such property is used for such purposes. These exemptions shall accrue to the benefit of the users of water so pumped under such regulations as the legislature may prescribe. The taxes of the indigent poor may be remitted or abated at such times and in such manner as may be provided by law. The legislature may provide for the exemption from taxation of homes, homesteads, and personal property, not to exceed $2,000 in value for homes and homesteads, and $300 for personal property. Property not to exceed $3,000 in value, owned by disabled persons who served in any war in the military service of the United States or of the State of Utah and by the unmarried widows and minor orphans of such persons may be exempted as the legislature may provide.

The legislature shall provide by law for an annual tax sufficient, with other sources of revenue, to defray the estimated ordinary expenses of the State of the fiscal year. For the purposes of paying the State debt, if any there be, the legislature shall provide for levying a tax annually, sufficient to pay the annual interest and to pay the principal of such debt, within twenty years from the final passage of the law creating the debt.

[As amended by SJR2 1930 Special Section, SJR2 1935 Regular Session.]

Section 3. [Legislature to provide uniform tax. Exemptions.]

The legislature shall provide by law a uniform and equal rate of assessment and taxation on all tangible property in the State, according to its value in money, and shall prescribe by law such regulations as shall secure a just valuation for taxation of such property, so that every person and corporation shall pay a tax in proportion to the value of his, her, or its tangible property, provided that the legislature may determine the manner and extent of taxing transient live stock and live stock being fed for slaughter to be used for human consummation. Intangible property may be exempted from taxation as property or it may be taxed in such manner and to such extent as the legislature may provide. Provided that if intangible property by taxed as property the rate thereof shall not exceed five mills on each dollar on valuation. When exempted from taxation as property, the taxable income therefrom shall be taxed under any tax based on incomes, but when taxed by the State of Utah as property, the income therefrom shall not also be taxed. The legislature may provide for deductions, exemptions, and/or offsets on any tax based upon income. The personal income tax rates shall be graduated but the maximum rate shall not exceed six per cent of net income. The rate limitations herein contained for taxes based on income and for taxes on intangible property shall be effective until January 1, 1937, and thereafter until changed by law by a vote of the majority of the members elected to each house of legislature. All revenue received from taxes on income or from taxes on intangible property shall be allocated as follows: 75 per cent thereof to the State district school fund and 25 per cent thereof to the State general fund and the State levies for such purposes shall be reduced annually in proportion to the revenues so allocated; provided that any surplus above the revenue required for the State district school fund as provided in Section 7 of this Article shall be paid into the State general fund.

[As amended by SJR7 1899 Regular Session, HJR1 1905 Regular Session, HJR8 1917 Regular Session, SJR2 1930 Special Section.]

Section 4. [Taxation of mines.]

All metalliferous mines or mining claims, both placer and rock in place, shall be assessed as the legislature shall provide; provided, the basis and multiple now and used in determining the value of metalliferous mines for taxation purposes and the additional assessed value of %5.00 per acre thereof shall not be changed before January 1, 1935, nor thereafter until otherwise provided by law. All other mines or mining claims and other valuable mineral deposits, including lands containing coal or hydrocarbons and all machinery used in mining and all property or surface improvements upon or appurtenant to mines or mining claims, and the value of any surface use made of mining claims, or mining property for other than mining purposes, shall be assessed as other tangible property.

[As amended by SJR5 1907 Regular Session, HJR9 1917 Regular Session, SJR5 1930 Special Session.]

Section 5. [Local authorities to levy local taxes.]

The Legislature shall not impose taxes for the purpose of any county, city, town or other municipal corporation, but may, by law, vest in the corporate authorities thereof, respectively, the power to assess and collect taxes for all purposes of such corporation.

Section 6. [Annual statement to be published.]

An accurate statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public moneys, shall be published annually in such manner as the Legislature may provide.

Section 7. [Tax rate for state purposes.]

The rate of taxation on tangible property shall not exceed on each dollar of valuation, two and four-tenths mills for general State purposes, two-tenths of one mill for high school purposes, which shall constitute the high school fund; said fund shall be apportioned in the manner the legislature shall provide, to the school districts maintaining high schools, and such levy for district school purposes which together with the interest on the permanent school fund and such other funds as may be available for district school purposes, will raise annually an amount which equals $25.00 for each person of school age in the state as shown by the last preceding school census; the same to be distributed among the school districts according to the last preceding school census; and in addition an equalization fund which when added to other revenues provided for this purpose by the legislature shall by $5.00 for each person of school age as shown by the last preceding school census; said equalization fund shall be apportioned to the school districts in such manner as the legislature shall provide. Said rates shall not be increased unless a proposition to increase the same specifying the rate or rates proposed and the time during which the same shall be levied, be first submitted to a vote of such of the qualified electors of the State, as in the year next preceding such election, shall have paid a property tax assessed to them within the State, and the majority of those voting thereon shall vote in favor thereof, in such manner as may be provided by law.

[As amended by SJR2 1909 Regular Session, HJR10 1930 Special Session.]

Section 8. [Officer not to make profit out of public moneys.]

The making of profit out of public moneys, or using the same for any purpose not authorized by law, by any public officer, shall be deemed a felony, and shall be punished as provided by law, but part of such punishment shall be disqualification to hold public office.

Section 9. [State expenditure to be kept within revenues.]

No appropriation shall be made, or any expenditure authorized by the Legislature, whereby the expenditure of the State, during any fiscal year, shall exceed the total tax then provided for by law, and applicable for such appropriation or expenditure, unless the Legislature making such appropriation, shall provide for levying a sufficient tax, not exceeding the rates allowed in section seven of this article, to pay such appropriation or expenditure within such fiscal year. This provision shall not apply to appropriations or expenditures to suppress insurrections, defend the State, or assist in defending the United States in time of war.

Section 10. [All property taxable where situated.]

All corporations or persons in this State, or doing business herein, shall be subject to taxation for State, County, School, Municipal or other purposes, on the real and personal property owned or used by them within the territorial limits of the authority levying the tax.

Section 11. [State and county boards of equalization.]

There shall be a State tax commission consisting of four members, not more than two of whom shall belong to the same political party. The members of the commission shall be appointed by the governor, by and with the consent of the senate, for such terms of office as may be provided by law. The State tax commission shall administer and supervise the tax laws of the State. It shall assess mines and public utilities and adjust and equalize the valuation and assessment of property among the several counties. It shall have such other powers of original assessment as the legislature may provide. Under such regulations in such cases and within such limitations as the legislature may prescribe, it shall establish systems of public accounting, review proposed bond issues, revise the tax levies and budgets of local governmental units, and equalize the assessment and valuation of property within the counties. The duties imposed upon the State board of equalization by the constitution and laws of this State shall be performed by the State tax commission.

In each county of this State there shall be a county board of equalization consisting of the board of county commissioners of said county. The county boards of equalization shall adjust and equalize the valuation and assessment of the real and personal property within their respective counties, subject to such regulation and control by the State tax commission as may be prescribed by law. The State tax commission and the county boards of equalization shall each have such other powers as may be prescribed by the legislature.

[As amended by SJR3 1930 Special Session.]

Section 12. [Stamp, income, license, franchise, or mortgage tax permissible.]

Nothing in this Constitution shall be construed to prevent the Legislature from providing a stamp tax, or a tax based on income, occupation, licenses or franchises.

[As amended by HJR1 1905 Regular Session.]

Article XIV. Public Debt.

Section 1. [State debt, limitation.]

To meet casual deficits or failures in revenue, and for necessary expenditures for public purposes, including the erection of public buildings, and for the payment of all Territorial indebtedness assumed by the State, the State may contract debts, not exceeding in the aggregate at any one time, an amount equal to one and one-half per centum to the value of the taxable property of the State, as shown by the last assessment for State purposes, previous to the incurring of such indebtedness. But the State shall never contract any indebtedness, except as in the next Section provided, in excess of such amount, and all moneys arising from loans herein authorized, shall be applied solely to the purposes for which they were obtained.

[As amended by SJR8 1909 Regular Session.]

Section 2. [Debts for public defense.]

The State may contract debts to repel invasion, suppress insurrection, or to defend the State in war, but the money arising from the contracting of such debts shall be applied solely to the purpose for which it was obtained.

Section 3. [Debts of counties, cities, etc., not to exceed revenue. Exception.]

No debt in excess of the taxes for the current year shall be created by any county or subdivision thereof, or by any school district therein, or by any city, town or village, or any subdivision thereof in this State; unless the proposition to create such debt, shall have been submitted to a vote of such qualified electors as shall have paid a property tax therein, in the year preceding such election, and a majority of those voting thereon shall have voted in favor of incurring such debt.

Section 4. [Limit of indebtedness of counties, cities, towns and school districts.]

When authorized to create indebtedness as provided in Section 3 of this Article, no County shall become indebted to an amount, including existing indebtedness exceeding two per centum. No city, town, school district, or other municipal corporation, shall become indebted to an amount, including existing indebtedness, exceeding four per centum of the value of the taxable property therein, the value to be ascertained by the last assessment for State and County purposes previous to the incurring of such indebtedness; except that in incorporated cities the assessment shall be taken from the last assessment for city purposes; provided, that not part of the indebtedness allowed in this section shall be incurred for other than strictly County, City, Town or school district purposes; provided further, that any city of the first and second class when authorized as provided in Section three of this article, may be allowed to incur a larger indebtedness, not to exceed four per centum and any city of the third class, or town, not to exceed eight per centum additional, for supplying such city of town with water, artificial lights or sewers, when the words for supplying such water, lights and sewers, shall be owned and controlled by the municipality.

[As amended by HJR6 1909 Regular Session.]

Section 5. [Borrowed money to be applied to authorized use.]

All moneys borrowed by, or on behalf of the State or any legal subdivision thereof, shall be used solely for the purpose specified in the law authorizing the loan.

Section 6. [State not to assume county, etc., debts.]

The State shall not assume the debt, or any part thereof, of any county, city, town or school district.

Section 7. [Existing indebtedness not impaired.]

Nothing in this article shall be so construed as to impair or add to the obligation of any debt heretofore contracted, in accordance with the laws of Utah Territory, by any county, city, town or school district, or to prevent the contracting of any debt, or the issuing of bonds therefor, in accordance with said laws, upon any proposition for that purpose, which, according to said laws, may have been submitted to a vote of the qualified electors of any county, city, town or school district before the day on which this Constitution takes effect.

Article XV. Militia.

Section 1. [How constituted.]

The militia shall consist of all able-bodied male inhabitants of the State, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five years, except such as are exempted by law.

Section 2. [Organization and equipment.]

The Legislature shall provide by law for the organization, equipment and discipline of the militia, which shall conform as nearly as practicable to the regulations for the government of the armies of the United States.

Article XVI. Labor.

Section 1. [Rights of labor to be protected.]

The rights of labor shall have just protection through laws calculated to promote the industrial welfare of the State.

Section 2. [Board of labor.]

The Legislature shall provide by law, for a Board of Labor, Conciliation and Arbitration, which shall fairly represent the interests of both capital and labor. The Board shall perform duties, and receive compensation as prescribed by law.

Section 3. [Certain employments, etc., to be prohibited.]

The Legislature shall prohibit:

(1) The employment of women, or of children under the age of fourteen years, in underground mines.

(2) The contracting of convict labor.

(3) The labor of convicts outside prison grounds, except on public works under the direct control of the State.

(4) The political and commercial control of employees.

Section 4. [Exchange of blacklists prohibited.]

The exchange of black lists by railroad companies, or other corporations, associations or persons is prohibited.

Section 5. [Injuries resulting in death -- Damages.]

The right of action to recover damages for injuries resulting in death, shall never be abrogated, and the amount recoverable shall not be subject to any statutory limitation, except in cases where compensation for injuries resulting in death is provided for by law.

[As amended by SCR1 1919 Special Session.]

Section 6. [Eight hours a day's labor on public works -- Health and safety laws.]

Eight hours shall constitute a day's work on all works or undertakings carried on or aided by the State, County or Municipal governments; and the Legislature shall pass laws to provide for the health and safety of employees in factories, smelters and mines.

Section 7. [Legislature to enforce this article.]

The Legislature, by appropriate legislation, shall provide for the enforcement of the provisions of this article.

Section 8. [Minimum wage for women and minors -- Comfort and safety laws.]

The legislature may, by appropriate legislation provide for the establishment of a minimum wage for women and minors and may provide for the comfort, health, safety and general welfare of any and all employees. No provision of this constitution shall be construed as a limitation upon the authority of the legislature to confer upon any commission now or hereafter created such power and authority as the legislature may deem requisite to carry out the provisions of this section.

[As amended by HJR10 1933 Regular Session.]

Article XVII. Water Rights.

Section 1. [Existing rights confirmed.]

All existing rights to the use of any of the waters in this State for any useful or beneficial purpose, are hereby recognized and confirmed.

Article XVIII. Forestry.

Section 1. [Forests to be preserved.]

The Legislature shall enact laws to prevent the destruction of and to preserve the Forests on the lands of the State, and upon any part of the public domain, the control of which may be conferred by Congress upon the State.

Article XIX. Public Buildings and State Institutions.

Section 1. [Property of territory becomes property of state.]

All Institutions and other property of the Territory, upon the adoption of this Constitution, shall become the Institutions and property of the State of Utah.

Section 2. [Charitable and penal institutions, how maintained.]

Reformatory and Penal Institutions, and those for the benefit of the Insane, Blind, Deaf and Dumb, and such other institutions as the public good may require, shall be established and supported by the State in such manner, and under such boards of control as may be prescribed by law.

Section 3. [Seat of government and public institutions permanently located.]

The public institutions of the State are hereby permanently located at the places hereinafter named, each to have the lands specifically granted to it by the United States, in the Act of Congress, approved July 16th, 1894, to be disposed of and used in such manner, as the legislature may provide:

First: the seat of government and the State fair at Salt Lake City:

Second: The institutions for the deaf and dumb, and the blind, and the State reform school at Ogden City, in the county of Weber.

Third: The Utah State hospital at Provo City, in the county of Utah.

[As amended by HJR9 1930 Special Session.]

Article XX. Public Lands.

Section 1. [Land grants accepted on terms of trust.]

All lands of the State that have been, or may hereafter be granted to the State by Congress, and all lands acquired by gift, grant or devise, from any person or corporation, or that may otherwise be acquired, are hereby accepted, and declared to be the public lands of the State; and shall be held in trust for the people, to be disposed of as may be provided by law, for the respective purposes for which they have been or may be granted, donated, devised or otherwise acquired.

Article XXI. Salaries.

Section 1. [Public officers to be paid salaries. Exceptions.]

All State, district, city, county, town and school officers, excepting notaries public, boards of arbitration, court commissioners, justices of the peace and constables, shall be paid fixed and definite salaries: Provided, That city justices may be paid by salary when so determined by the mayor and council of such cities.

Section 2. [Legislature to provide fees. Accounting.]

The Legislature shall provide by law, the fees which shall be collected by all officers within the state. Notaries public, boards of arbitration, court commissioners, justices of the peace, and constables paid by fees, shall accept said fees as their full compensation. But all other State, district, county, city, town and school officers, shall be required by law to keep a true and correct account of all fees collected by them, and to pay the same into the proper treasury, and the officer whose duty it is to collect such fees shall be held responsible under his bond for the same.

Article XXII. Miscellaneous.

Section 1. [Homestead exemption.]

The Legislature shall provide by law, for the selection by each head of a family, and exemption of a homestead, which may consist of one or more parcels of lands, together with the appurtenances and improvements thereon on the value of at least fifteen hundred dollars from sale on execution.

Section 2. [Property rights of married women.]

Real and personal estate of every female, acquired before marriage, and all property to which she may afterwards become entitled by purchase, gift, grant, inheritance or devise, shall be and remain the estate and property of such female, and shall not be liable for the debts, obligations or engagements of her husband, and may be conveyed, devised or bequeathed by her as if she were unmarried.

Article XXIII. Amendments.

Section 1. [Amendments: proposal, election.]

Any amendment or amendments to this Constitution may be proposed in either house of the Legislature, and if two-thirds of all the members elected to each of the two houses, shall vote in favor thereof, such proposed amendment or amendments shall be entered on their respective journals with the yeas and nays taken thereon; and the Legislature shall cause the same to be published in at least one newspaper in every county of the State, where a newspaper is published, for two months immediately preceding the next general election, at which time the said amendment or amendments shall be submitted to the electors of the State, for their approval or rejection, and if a majority of the electors voting thereon shall approve the same, such amendment or amendments shall become part of this Constitution. If two or more amendments are proposed, they shall be so submitted as to enable the electors to vote on each of them separately.

Section 2. [Revision of the Constitution.]

Whenever two-thirds of the members, elected to each branch of the Legislature, shall deem it necessary to call a convention to revise or amend this Constitution, they shall recommend to the electors to vote, at the next general election, for or against a convention, and, if a majority of all the electors, voting at such election, shall vote for a convention, the Legislature, at its next session, shall provide by law for calling the same. The convention shall consist of not less than the number of members in both branches of the Legislature.

Section 3. [Submission to electors.]

No Constitution, or amendments adopted by such convention, shall have validity until submitted to, and adopted by, a majority of the electors of the State voting at the next general election.

Article XXIV. Schedule.

Section 1. [Actions, contracts to continue.]

In order that no inconvenience may arise, by reason of the change from a Territorial to a State Government, it is hereby declared that all writs, actions, prosecutions, judgments, claims and contracts, as well of individuals as of bodies corporate, both public and private, shall continue as if no change had taken place; and all process which may issue, under the authority of the Territory of Utah, previous to its admission into the Union, shall be as valid as if issued in the name of the State of Utah.

Section 2. [Territorial laws continued.]

All laws of the Territory of Utah now in force, not repugnant to this Constitution, shall remain in force until they expire by their own limitations, or are altered or repealed by the Legislature. The act of the Governor and Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah, entitled, "An Act to punish polygamy and other kindred offenses," approved February 4th, A.D. 1892, in so far as the same defines and imposes penalties for polygamy, is hereby declared to be in force in the State of Utah.

Section 3. [Prisoners to be held.]

Any person, who, at the time of the admission of the State into the Union, may be confined under lawful commitment, or otherwise lawfully held to answer for alleged violation of any of the criminal laws of the Territory of Utah, shall continue to be so held or confined, until discharged therefrom by the proper courts of the State.

Section 4. [Fines, penalties and forfeitures due the territory. Debts of the territory.]

All fines, penalties and forfeitures accruing to the Territory of Utah, or to the people of the United States in the Territory of Utah, shall inure to this State, and all debts, liabilities and obligations of said Territory shall be valid against the State, and enforced as may be provided by law.

Section 5. [Recognizances -- Judgments -- Records -- Fines due counties, municipalities and school districts.]

All recognizances heretofore taken, or which may be taken before the change from a Territorial to a State Government, shall remain valid, and shall pass to and be prosecuted in the name of the State; and all bonds executed to the Governor of the Territory, or to any other officer or court in his or their official capacity, or to any official board for the benefit of the Territory of Utah, or the people thereof, shall pass to the Governor or other officer, court or board, and his or their successors in office, for the uses therein, respectively expressed, and may be sued on, and recovery had accordingly. Assessed taxes, and all revenue, property, real, personal or mixed, and all judgments, bonds, specialties, choses in action, claims and debts, of whatsoever description; and all records and public archives of the Territory of Utah, shall issue and vest in the State of Utah, and may be sued for and recovered, in the same manner, and to the same extent by the State of Utah, as the same could have been by the Territory of Utah; and all fines, taxes, penalties and forfeitures, due or owing to any county, municipality or school district therein, at the time the State shall be admitted into the Union, are hereby respectively assigned and transferred, and the same shall be payable to the county, municipality or school district, as the case may be, and payment thereof be enforced under the laws of the State.

Section 6. [Criminal prosecutions begun and crimes committed before statehood.]

All criminal prosecutions, and penal actions, which may have arisen, or which may arise before the change from a Territorial to a State Government, and which shall then be pending, shall be prosecuted to judgment and execution in the name of the State, and in the court having jurisdiction thereof. All offenses committed against the laws of the Territory of Utah, before the change from a Territorial to a State Government, and which shall not have been prosecuted before such change, may be prosecuted in the name, and by authority of the State of Utah, with like effect as though such change had not taken place, and all penalties incurred shall remain the same, as if this Constitution had not been adopted.

Section 7. [Transfer of causes, records.]

All actions, cases, proceedings and matters, pending in the Supreme and District Courts of the Territory of Utah, at the time the State shall be admitted into the Union, and all files, records and indictments relating thereto, except as otherwise provided herein, shall be appropriately transferred to the Supreme and District Courts of the State respectively; and thereafter all such actions, matters and cases, shall be proceeded with in the proper State courts. All actions, cases, proceedings and matters which shall be pending in the District Courts of the Territory of Utah, at the time of the admission of the State into the Union, whereof the United States Circuit or District Courts might have had jurisdiction had there been a State Government at the time of the commencement thereof respectively, shall be transferred to the proper United States Circuit and District Courts respectively; and all files, records, indictments and proceedings relating thereto, shall be transferred to said United States Courts: Provided, That no civil actions, other than causes and proceedings of which the said United States' Courts shall have exclusive jurisdiction, shall be transferred to either of said United States' Courts except upon motion or petition by one of the parties thereto, made under and in accordance with the act or acts of Congress of the United States, and such motion and petition not being made, all such cases shall be proceeded with in the proper State Courts.

Section 8. [Seals of courts.]

Upon a change from Territorial to State Government, the seal in use by the Supreme Court of the Territory of Utah, until otherwise provided by law, shall pass to and become the Seal of the Supreme Court of the State, and the several District Courts of the State may adopt seals for their respective courts, until otherwise provided by law.

Section 9. [Transfer of probate causes to district courts.]

When the State is admitted into the Union, and the District Courts in the respective districts are organized, the books, records, papers and proceedings of the probate court in each county, and all causes and matters of administration pending therein, upon the expiration of the term of office of the Probate Judge, on the second Monday in January, 1896, shall pass into the jurisdiction and possession of the District Court, which shall proceed to final judgment or decree, order or other determination in the several matters and causes, as the Territorial Probate Court might have done, if this Constitution had not been adopted. And until the expiration of the term of office of the Probate Judges, such Probate Judges shall perform the duties now imposed upon them by the laws of the Territory. The District Courts shall have appellate and revisory jurisdiction over the decisions of the Probate Courts as now provided by law, until such latter courts expire by limitation.

Section 10. [Officers to hold office until superseded.]

All officers, civil and military, now holding their offices and appointments in this Territory by authority of law, shall continue to hold and exercise their respective offices and appointments, until superseded under this Constitution: Provided, That the provisions of this section shall be subject to the provisions of the Act of Congress, providing for the admission of the State of Utah, approved by the President of the United States on July 16th, 1894.

Section 11. [Election for adoption or rejection of Constitution and for state officers -- Voters.]

The election for the adoption or rejection of this Constitution, and for State Officers herein provided for, shall be held on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, 1895, and shall be conducted according to the laws of the Territory, and the provisions of the Enabling Act; the votes cast at said election shall be canvassed, and returns made, in the same manner as was provided for in the election for delegates to the Constitutional Convention.

Provided, That all male citizens of the United States, over the age of twenty-one years, who have resided in this Territory for one year next prior to such election, are hereby authorized to vote for or against the adoption of this Constitution, and for the State Officers herein provided for. The returns of said election shall be made to the Utah Commission, who shall cause the same to be canvassed, and shall certify the result of the vote for or against the Constitution, to the President of the United States, in the manner required by the Enabling Act; and said Commission shall issue certificates of election to the persons elected to said offices severally, and shall make and file with the Secretary of the Territory, an abstract, certified to by them, of the number of votes cast for each person for each of said offices, and of the total number of votes cast in each county.

Section 12. [Officers to be elected.]

The State Officers to be voted for at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be a Governor, Secretary of State, State Auditor, State Treasurer, Attorney General, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Members of the Senate and House of Representatives, three Supreme Judges, nine District Judges, and a Representative to Congress.

Section 13. [Contest for district judgeship, how determined.]

In case of a contest of election between candidates, at the first general election under this Constitution, for Judges of the District Courts, the evidence shall be taken in the manner prescribed by the Territorial laws, and the testimony so taken shall be certified to the Secretary of State, and said officer, together with the Governor and the Treasurer of the State, shall review the evidence, and determine who is entitled to the certificate of election.

Section 14. [Constitution to be submitted to voters -- Ballot.]

This Constitution shall be submitted for adoption or rejection, to a vote of the qualified electors of the proposed State, at the general election to be held on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, A. D. 1895. At the said election the ballot shall be in the following form:

For the Constitution. Yes. No.

As a heading to each of said ballots there shall be printed on each ballot the following Instructions to Voters:

All persons desiring to vote for the Constitution must erase the word "No."

All persons desiring to vote against the Constitution must erase the word "Yes."

Section 15. [Election of officers not provided for herein.]

The Legislature, at its first session, shall provide for the election of all officers, whose election is not provided for elsewhere in this Constitution, and fix the time for the commencement and duration of their terms.

Section 16. [When Constitution in force.]

The provisions of this Constitution shall be in force from the day on which the President of the United States shall issue his proclamation, declaring the State of Utah admitted into the Union; and the terms of all officers elected at the first election under the provisions of this Constitution, shall commence on the first Monday, next succeeding the issue of said proclamation. Their terms of office shall expire when their successors are elected and qualified under this Constitution.

Done in Convention at Salt Lake City, in the Territory of Utah, this eighth day of May, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety-five, and of the Independence of the United States the one hundred and nineteenth.