Disclaimer. Don't rely on these old notes in lieu of reading the literature, but they can jog your memory. As a grad student long ago, my peers and I collaborated to write and exchange summaries of political science research. I posted them to a wiki-style website. "Wikisum" is now dead but archived here. I cannot vouch for these notes' accuracy, nor can I even say who wrote them. If you have more recent summaries to add to this collection, send them my way I guess. Sorry for the ads; they cover the costs of keeping this online.
Comisso. 1993. Federalism and nationalism in post-socialist eastern Europe. New Europe Law Review 1 (spring): 489-503.
Of the former Communist bloc, the only states that experienced partition as part of transition were the three federal states: Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and the USSR. Partition occurred less along ethnic boundaries than along the former federal boundaries. "Thus, even though there is a great deal of reason to believe that federalism ought to provide a means through which a multinational society can be accommodated within a single state, the actual experience of both Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union suggests that the practical effect of federalism in states and societies undergoing a transition from socialism is to facilitate the creation of new sovereignties without necessarily coming to grips with underlying national tensions."
In communist times, the central government in these federations held the federations together through political (party) leadership more than through legal (constitutional) leadership. It also held them together through force. As USSR, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia lost their abilities to hold their federations together through force, the central government lost its ability to force a bargain. So regional leaders needed a regional base, not support from the center. Leaders, seeing that their regions had an ethnic majority, played the nationalist card to build a regional base. And this led directly to disintegration of the federation.
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